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Chemical Heterocyclic Compounds, Fused-Ring

These are exposure studies associated with the chemical and all of its children.

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  Reference Associated Study Title Author's Summary Study Factors Stressor Receptors Country Medium Exposure Marker Measurements Outcome
1. Hedley AJ, et al. (2006). In a 2002-2003 World Health Organization exposure study, 13 pools of breast milk comprising samples from 316 primiparous women in Hong Kong in 2002 were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for 29 polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins /dibenzofurans and dioxin-like poly-chlorinated biphenyls congeners. 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzodioxin | 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran | 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorodibenzodioxin | 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorodibenzofuran | 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzodioxin | 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran | 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin | 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,4,4'5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran | 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran | 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl | 3,4,5,3',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | 3,4,5,3',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl | Benzofurans | octachlorodibenzofuran | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins | polychlorodibenzofuran | Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin Mothers Hong Kong milk, human 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzodioxin | 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran | 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorodibenzodioxin | 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorodibenzofuran | 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzodioxin | 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran | 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin | 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,4,4'5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran | 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran | 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl | 3,4,5,3',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | 3,4,5,3',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl | Benzofurans | octachlorodibenzofuran | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins | polychlorodibenzofuran | Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin Details
2. Warner M, et al. (2014). Seveso Women's Health Study (SWHS) We measured individual 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and total toxic equivalent concentrations in serum collected approximately twenty years after the 1976 explosion for a sample of the Seveso Women's Health Study cohort. 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzodioxin | 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran | 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorodibenzodioxin | 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorodibenzofuran | 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzodioxin | 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran | 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin | 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran | 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran | 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl | 3,4,5,3',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | 3,4,5,3',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl | octachlorodibenzo-4-dioxin | octachlorodibenzofuran | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin Controls for disease:Chloracne | Subjects with disease:Chloracne | Study subjects Italy serum 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzodioxin | 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran | 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorodibenzodioxin | 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorodibenzofuran | 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzodioxin | 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran | 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin | 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran | 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran | 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl | 3,4,5,3',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | 3,4,5,3',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl | octachlorodibenzo-4-dioxin | octachlorodibenzofuran | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin Details
3. Lee DH, et al. (2007). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) This study suggests that the prevalence of a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors relates to background exposure to a mixture of persistent organic pollutants, several of which are also related to the prevalence of diabetes. 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzodioxin | 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran | 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorodibenzofuran | 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,4',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl | 3,4,5,3',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl | Dibenzofurans, Polychlorinated | Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated | Pesticides | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins Study subjects United States Details Insulin Resistance | Metabolic Syndrome | cholesterol metabolic process | regulation of blood pressure | triglyceride metabolic process
4. Pless-Mulloli T, et al. (2005). Long term residency near heavy and chemical industry did not have an effect on women's body burden of polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and furans and polychlorinated biphenyls on Teesside, UK. 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzodioxin | 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorodibenzodioxin | 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorodibenzofuran | 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzodioxin | 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin | 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran | Benzofurans | Dibenzofurans, Polychlorinated | octachlorodibenzo-4-dioxin | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins | Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin Study subjects United Kingdom blood 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzodioxin | 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorodibenzodioxin | 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorodibenzofuran | 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzodioxin | 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin | 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran | Benzofurans | Dibenzofurans, Polychlorinated | octachlorodibenzo-4-dioxin | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins | Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin Details
5. Turyk ME, et al. (2007). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) In the adult participants of NHANES from 1999 to 2002, total thyroxine was negatively associated with serum dioxin-like toxic equivalents in a dose-dependent fashion, with stronger associations in women than men. age | sex 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran | 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorodibenzofuran | 2,2',3,3',4,4',5-heptachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran | 2,4,4',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | 3,4,5,3',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | 3,4,5,3',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl | Benzofurans | dibenzodioxin | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds | Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated | PCB 180 | Polychlorinated Biphenyls Study subjects United States serum 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran | 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorodibenzofuran | 2,2',3,3',4,4',5-heptachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran | 2,4,4',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | 3,4,5,3',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | 3,4,5,3',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl | Benzofurans | dibenzodioxin | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | PCB 180 | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | Thyrotropin | Thyroxine Details thyroid hormone metabolic process
6. Dodson RE, et al. (2015). California Household Exposure Study (CAHES) We collected house dust and indoor air samples in 49 California homes and analyzed for 76 semivolatile organic compounds-phthalates, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and pesticides. 1,2,5,6-dibenzanthracene | 1-methylphenanthrene | 1-nitropyrene | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,5,2',5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl | 2-methylphenanthrene | 2-phenylphenol | 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene | 4-nitrotoluene | acenaphthene | acenaphthylene | alachlor | Aldrin | anthracene | Atrazine | bendiocarb | benz(a)anthracene | Benzo(a)pyrene | benzo(b)fluoranthene | benzo(j)fluoranthene | benzo(k)fluoranthene | benzothiophene | butylbenzyl phthalate | Carbaryl | Carbofuran | Chlordan | Chlorpyrifos | chrysene | cyanazine | cypermethrin | DDT | Diazinon | dibenzo(a,e)pyrene | dibenzothiophene | Dibutyl Phthalate | Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | Dicofol | dicyclohexyl phthalate | Dieldrin | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | diethyl phthalate | diisobutyl phthalate | di-n-hexyl phthalate | di-n-octyl phthalate | di-n-pentyl phthalate | di-n-propylphthalate | dioctyl adipate | Endrin | fluoranthene | fluorene | Heptachlor | indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene | Lindane | Malathion | Methoxychlor | Methyl Parathion | metolachlor | nitrofen | Parathion | pentabromodiphenyl ether | Permethrin | phenanthrene | Phenanthrenes | Piperonyl Butoxide | prometone | Propoxur | pyrene | Simazine | tetrachloroisophthalonitrile | Trifluralin | tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate United States dust 1,2,5,6-dibenzanthracene | 1-methylphenanthrene | 1-nitropyrene | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,5,2',5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl | 2-methylphenanthrene | 2-phenylphenol | 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene | 4-nitrotoluene | acenaphthene | acenaphthylene | alachlor | Aldrin | anthracene | Atrazine | bendiocarb | benz(a)anthracene | Benzo(a)pyrene | benzo(b)fluoranthene | benzo(j)fluoranthene | benzo(k)fluoranthene | benzothiophene | butylbenzyl phthalate | Carbaryl | Carbofuran | Chlordan | Chlorpyrifos | chrysene | cyanazine | cypermethrin | DDT | Diazinon | dibenzo(a,e)pyrene | dibenzothiophene | Dibutyl Phthalate | Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | Dicofol | dicyclohexyl phthalate | Dieldrin | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | diethyl phthalate | diisobutyl phthalate | di-n-hexyl phthalate | di-n-octyl phthalate | di-n-pentyl phthalate | di-n-propylphthalate | dioctyl adipate | Endrin | fluoranthene | fluorene | Heptachlor | indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene | Lindane | Malathion | Methoxychlor | Methyl Parathion | metolachlor | nitrofen | Parathion | pentabromodiphenyl ether | Permethrin | phenanthrene | Phenanthrenes | Piperonyl Butoxide | prometone | Propoxur | pyrene | Simazine | tetrachloroisophthalonitrile | Trifluralin | tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate Details
7. Rull RP, et al. (2006). Data on two case-control study populations of infants with neural tube defects (NTDs) and nonmalformed controls delivered in California between 1987 and 1991 were pooled to investigate whether maternal residential proximity to applications of specific pesticides or physicochemical groups of pesticides during early gestation increases the risk of these malformations. 1,3-dichloro-1-propene | Amides | Benomyl | Benzimidazoles | Captan | Chlorpyrifos | devrinol | Dimethoate | Disulfoton | Methomyl | methyl carbamate | methyl demeton | Naled | Organophosphorus Compounds | vendex Infants or newborns United States 1,3-dichloro-1-propene | Amides | Benomyl | Benzimidazoles | Captan | Chlorpyrifos | devrinol | Dimethoate | Disulfoton | Methomyl | methyl carbamate | methyl demeton | Naled | Organophosphorus Compounds | vendex Details Anencephaly | Neural Tube Defects | Spinal Dysraphism
8. Aszyk J, et al. (2017). A gas chromatography-electron ionization-mass spectometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of 46 commonly used flavour additives in e-liquids. 1-hexanol | 3,4-dihydrocoumarin | 3-hexen-1-ol | 4-Butyrolactone | alpha-terpineol | anisyl acetate | benzaldehyde | benzyl acetate | Benzyl Alcohol | citronellol | decan-4-olide | decanaldehyde | ethyl hexanoate | Eugenol | Furaldehyde | furfuryl alcohol | isoamyl acetate | limonene | linalyl acetate | methyl acetate | n-pentanol | raspberry ketone Poland e-liquid 1-hexanol | 3,4-dihydrocoumarin | 3-hexen-1-ol | 4-Butyrolactone | alpha-terpineol | anisyl acetate | benzaldehyde | benzyl acetate | Benzyl Alcohol | citronellol | decan-4-olide | decanaldehyde | ethyl hexanoate | Eugenol | Furaldehyde | furfuryl alcohol | isoamyl acetate | limonene | linalyl acetate | methyl acetate | n-pentanol | raspberry ketone Details
9. Johnson NM, et al. (2010). Findings suggest that the incidence and level of aflatoxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure was less than that observed in a high-risk population; however, participants consuming higher amounts of foods prone to aflatoxin contamination may be more vulnerable to exposure and interactions with other environmental/biological factors (i.e., hepatitis C virus). diet 1-hydroxypyrene | Aflatoxin M1 Study subjects United States urine 1-hydroxypyrene | Aflatoxin M1 Details
10. Ayotte P, et al. (2005). In summary, we found no relation between biomarkers of organochlorine exposure and markers of hepatic enzyme induction in this highly exposed group of fish eaters from the Lower North Shore of the St. Lawrence River. Our results suggest that smoking induces liver CYP1A2 activity, which in turn alters porphyrin metabolism and increases the biotransformation of mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls. tobacco 2,2',3,3',4,4',5-heptachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | Hexachlorobenzene | Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated | Mirex | nonachlor | oxychlordane | PCB 180 | Polychlorinated Biphenyls Study subjects Canada plasma | urine 2,2',3,3',4,4',5-heptachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | Coproporphyrins | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | Glucaric Acid | Hexachlorobenzene | Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated | Mirex | nonachlor | oxychlordane | PCB 180 | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | Uroporphyrins Details enzyme activator activity
11. Patel CJ, et al. (2012). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) We screened for correlation between environmental factors and lipid levels, utilizing four independent surveys with information on 188 environmental factors from the Centers of Disease Control, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, collected between 1999 and 2006. age | body mass index | race | sex | socioeconomic status 2,2',3,3',4,4',5-heptachlorobiphenyl | 2,3-bis(3'-hydroxybenzyl)butyrolactone | 2,4,4',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl | 2-hydroxyfluorene | alpha-Tocopherol | Ascorbic Acid | beta Carotene | Cotinine | Cryptoxanthins | Fluorenes | Folic Acid | gamma-Tocopherol | Heptachlor Epoxide | Iron | lycopene | Mercury | nonachlor | oxychlordane | retinol palmitate | retinyl stearate | Vitamin A | Vitamin D Study subjects United States Details cholesterol metabolic process | triglyceride metabolic process
12. Wang SL, et al. (2004). This study has provided an indication of polychlorinated biphenyl, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, and dibenzofuran body burden from a group of childbearing aged women and their newborns among the general population in central Taiwan. 2,2',3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | Dibenzofurans, Polychlorinated | Endocrine Disruptors | PCB 180 | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins Pregnant females Taiwan, Province of China blood | blood, cord | milk, human | placenta Dibenzofurans, Polychlorinated | Endocrine Disruptors | Heterocyclic Compounds | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins Details
13. Tsukimori K, et al. (2008). High levels of polychlorinated biphenyls/polychlorinated dibenzofurans exposure had some adverse effects on pregnancy outcome in Yusho women. 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran | 3,4,5,3',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | 3,4,5,3',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl Pregnant females | Study subjects Japan 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran | 3,4,5,3',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | 3,4,5,3',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl Details Pregnancy Complications
14. Arcury TA, et al. (2007). In this investigation we documented the pesticide urinary metabolite levels of farmworker children in North Carolina, determined the number of different metabolites detected for each child, and delineated risk factors associated with the number of metabolites. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 3-phenoxybenzoic acid | acetochlor | Atrazine | Chlorpyrifos | Coumaphos | DEET | Diazinon | isazophos | Malathion | metolachlor | Parathion | pirimiphos methyl Children United States urine 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 3-phenoxybenzoic acid | acetochlor | Atrazine | Chlorpyrifos | Coumaphos | DEET | Diazinon | isazophos | Malathion | metolachlor | Parathion | pirimiphos methyl Details
15. Bakke B, et al. (2009). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) We measured the exposure to atrazine and selected non-persistent pesticides among corn farmers during a growing season; urinary atrazine mercapturate levels in farmers were largely driven by recent application of atrazine; therefore, the amount of atrazine applied is likely to provide valid surrogates of atrazine exposure in epidemiologic studies. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | acetochlor | Atrazine | Chlorpyrifos | Coumaphos | Diazinon | Malathion | Methyl Parathion | metolachlor | pirimiphos methyl | Pyrethrins Workers United States urine 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol | 3-phenoxybenzoic acid | acetochlor mercapturate | atrazine mercapturate | chlorferron | Diazinon | Malathion | Methyl Parathion | metolachlor | pirimiphos methyl Details
16. Goldner WS, et al. (2010). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) These data support a role of organochlorines, in addition to fungicides, in the etiology of thyroid disease among female spouses enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | alachlor | Aldrin | Atrazine | Benomyl | butylate | Captan | Carbaryl | Carbon Disulfide | Carbon Tetrachloride | Chlordan | chlorimuron ethyl | Chlorpyrifos | cyanazine | DDT | Diazinon | Dicamba | Dichlorvos | EPTC | Fonofos | Fungicides, Industrial | glyphosate | Heptachlor | Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated | imazethapyr | Insecticides | Lindane | Malathion | mancozeb | Maneb | metalaxyl | methyl bromide | metolachlor | metribuzin | Paraquat | Parathion | pendimethalin | Petroleum | terbufos | tetrachloroisophthalonitrile | Trifluralin Study subjects United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Hyperthyroidism | Hypothyroidism
17. Kamel F, et al. (2007). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) This study suggests that exposure to certain pesticides may increase Parkinson's disease risk. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | Benomyl | butylate | Carbon Disulfide | Carbon Tetrachloride | cyanazine | Dicamba | Ethylene Dibromide | Lindane | mancozeb | Maneb | methyl bromide | Paraquat | pendimethalin | Pesticides | Phorate | tetrachloroisophthalonitrile Study subjects | Workers United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Parkinson Disease
18. Engel LS, et al. (2005). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) While pesticide use overall is not associated with an increased rate of breast cancer among the wives of farmers in the Agricultural Health Study cohort, use of certain pesticides may be related to increased risk. These include the herbicides 2,4,5-trichloro-phenoxypropionic acid and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, the insecticide dieldrin, and the fungicide captan. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | Captan | Dieldrin | fenoprop Study subjects United States Details Breast Neoplasms
19. Carreón T, et al. (2005). Upper Midwest Health Study (UMHS) Results show that exposure to pesticides was not associated with an increased risk of intracranial gliomas in women. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 2-chloro-N-(ethoxymethyl)-N-(2-methyl-6-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)acetamide | alachlor | Aniline Compounds | Arsenicals | Atrazine | bentazone | Benzoic Acid | Carbamates | cyanazine | DDT | Diazinon | Dicamba | Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated | imazethapyr | Inorganic Chemicals | Malathion | metolachlor | Organophosphates | pendimethalin | Pesticides | Triazines | Trifluralin Controls for disease:Glioma | Subjects with disease:Glioma United States Details Glioma
20. Hoppin JA, et al. (2017). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) We evaluated the association of currently used pesticides with allergic and non-allergic wheeze among male farmers, and our results implicate several pesticides that are commonly used in agricultural and residential settings with adverse respiratory effects. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | acetochlor | Atrazine | bentazone | Carbaryl | Chlorpyrifos | clomazone | clopyralid | cyfluthrin | Dicamba | Dimethoate | Disulfoton | fenoxaprop ethyl | fluazifop-butyl | glyphosate | Herbicides | imazaquin | Insecticides | Malathion | mesotrione | metolachlor | N-(2,6-difluorophenyl)-5-methyl(1,2,4)-triazol(1,5-a)pyrimidine-2-sulfonamide | nicosulfuron | Permethrin | Petroleum | Picloram | Pyrethrins | Rodenticides | Simazine | triclopyr | Trifluralin | Warfarin Workers United States Details Respiratory Sounds | Rhinitis, Allergic
21. Hoppin JA, et al. (2002). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) Prevalence of wheeze was associated with individual pesticides independent of animals, crops, and grains. disease 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | alachlor | Aldicarb | aluminum phosphide | Atrazine | Benomyl | butylate | Captan | Carbaryl | Carbofuran | chlorimuron ethyl | Chlorpyrifos | Coumaphos | cyanazine | Diazinon | Dicamba | Dichlorvos | EPTC | Fonofos | glyphosate | imazethapyr | Lindane | Malathion | Maneb | metalaxyl | metolachlor | metribuzin | Paraquat | Parathion | pendimethalin | Permethrin | Petroleum | Phorate | terbufos | tetrachloroisophthalonitrile | Trichlorfon | Trifluralin | Ziram Subjects with disease:Asthma | Subjects with disease:Ige Responsiveness, Atopic | Workers United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Respiratory Sounds
22. Slager RE, et al. (2009). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) Exposure to pesticides may increase the risk of rhinitis. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | Benomyl | Carbofuran | Diazinon | glyphosate | Petroleum Workers United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Rhinitis
23. Hoppin JA, et al. (2008). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) These findings suggest that pesticides may contribute to atopic asthma, but not nonatopic asthma, among farm women. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | Carbamates | Carbaryl | Coumaphos | DDT | glyphosate | Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated | Malathion | metalaxyl | Organophosphates | Parathion | Permethrin | Pesticides | Phorate Study subjects United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Asthma
24. Lu C, et al. (2006). We were able to demonstrate that an organic diet provides a dramatic and immediate protective effect against exposures to organophosphorus pesticides that are commonly used in agricultural production. diet 2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinol | 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol | chlorferron | Malathion | pirimiphos methyl Children United States urine 2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinol | 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol | chlorferron | Malathion | pirimiphos methyl Details
25. Dodson RE, et al. (2012). Common products contain complex mixtures of Endocrine-disrupting compounds and asthma-related compounds. 4-nonylphenol | 4-tert-octylphenol | benzophenone | benzyl acetate | bisphenol A | butylbenzyl phthalate | butylparaben | decamethylcyclopentasiloxane | Dibutyl Phthalate | dicyclohexyl phthalate | diethanolamine | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | diethyl phthalate | diisobutyl phthalate | diisononyl phthalate | di-n-hexyl phthalate | di-n-octyl phthalate | di-n-propylphthalate | Ethanolamine | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | Eugenol | galaxolide | limonene | linalool | methyleugenol | methylionone | methylparaben | methyl salicylate | musk ketone | musk xylene | n-butoxyethanol | octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane | octylmethoxycinnamate | oxybenzone | phenoxyethanol | Phenyl Ethers | Phenylethyl Alcohol | pichtosin | triclocarban | Triclosan United States air freshener | air freshener, car | baking soda | bar soap | body lotion | body wash | Borax | car interior cleaner | carpet cleaner | cat litter | conditioner | deodorant | diaper | dish liquid | dishwasher detergent | dryer sheet | fabric refresher | facial cleanser | facial lotion | floor cleaner | foundation | fragrance or perfume | glass cleaner | hair gel | hair spray or mousse or gel | hand sanitizer | hand soap | laundry bleach | laundry detergent | lip balm | lipstick | mascara | nail polish | pillow protector | polish or wax | scrubbing powder | shampoo | shaving cream | shower curtain, vinyl | stain remover | sunscreen | sunscreen composite | surface cleaner | toilet bowl cleaner | toothpaste | tub and tile cleaner | wet mop 4-nonylphenol | 4-tert-octylphenol | benzophenone | benzyl acetate | bisphenol A | butylbenzyl phthalate | butylparaben | decamethylcyclopentasiloxane | Dibutyl Phthalate | dicyclohexyl phthalate | diethanolamine | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | diethyl phthalate | diisobutyl phthalate | diisononyl phthalate | di-n-hexyl phthalate | di-n-octyl phthalate | di-n-propylphthalate | Ethanolamine | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | Eugenol | galaxolide | limonene | linalool | methyleugenol | methylionone | methylparaben | methyl salicylate | musk ketone | musk xylene | n-butoxyethanol | octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane | octylmethoxycinnamate | oxybenzone | phenoxyethanol | Phenyl Ethers | Phenylethyl Alcohol | pichtosin | triclocarban | Triclosan Details
26. Huang YF, et al. (2017). Our results support a role for exposure to 4-nonylphenol and bisphenol A and possibly inflammation in increasing oxidative/nitrative stress and decreasing antioxidant activity during pregnancy. 4-nonylphenol | bisphenol A Pregnant females Taiwan, Province of China blood | blood, cord | urine 4-nonylphenol | 8-epi-prostaglandin F2alpha | 8-nitroguanine | 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine | bisphenol A | GPX1 | TNF Details negative regulation of glutathione peroxidase activity | tumor necrosis factor production
27. Huang CY, et al. (2012). Higher urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a marker of DNA damage) in an area without obvious arsenic exposure was a strong predictor of renal cell carcinoma; urinary 8-OHdG was significantly related to urinary total arsenic, and high levels of 8-OHdG combined with arsenic might be indicative of arsenic-induced renal cell carcinoma. 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine | Arsenic Controls for disease:Carcinoma, Renal Cell | Subjects with disease:Carcinoma, Renal Cell Taiwan, Province of China urine 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine | Arsenicals Details Carcinoma, Renal Cell
28. Lai H, et al. (2014). The findings of this study indicate that occupational aflatoxin B1 airway exposure might be associated with the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma among factory workers. Aflatoxin B1 Controls for disease:Carcinoma, Hepatocellular | Subjects with disease:Carcinoma, Hepatocellular | Workers China dust | serum aflatoxin-albumin adduct | Aflatoxin B1 Details Carcinoma, Hepatocellular
29. Groopman JD, et al. (2014). In this study we have found that aflatoxin exposure is ubiquitous among at least some of the rural populations of Nepal and Bangladesh, as assessed by a robust mass spectrometry-based albumin adduct biomarker. Aflatoxin B1 Children | Fetuses | Pregnant females Bangladesh|Nepal blood | blood, cord | serum aflatoxin B1-lysine adduct Details
30. Yard EE, et al. (2013). Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS) Our findings suggest that aflatoxin exposure is a public health problem throughout Kenya, and it could be substantially impacting human health. Aflatoxins Pregnant females | Study subjects Kenya serum aflatoxin B1-lysine adduct Details
31. Jager AV, et al. (2014). We performed a longitudinal assessment to evaluate the short-term exposure to aflatoxins in Sao Paulo (Brazil) by determination of urine levels: aflatoxin M1 was found (but there was no significant difference among the mean levels in four sampling periods), and the levels indicate a low short-term exposure to aflatoxins through the diet. diet Aflatoxins Study subjects Brazil urine Aflatoxin M1 Details
32. Liu Y, et al. (2010). Aflatoxin may play a causative role in 4.6-28.2% of all global hepatocellular carcinoma cases. Aflatoxins Study subjects Argentina|Australia|
Brazil|China|
Congo, the Democratic Republic of the|Egypt|
Ethiopia|Gambia|
India|Indonesia|
Iran, Islamic Republic of|Kenya|
Korea, Republic of|Malaysia|
Mexico|Mozambique|
Nigeria|Pakistan|
Philippines|South Africa|
Sudan|Tanzania, United Republic of|
Thailand|United States|
Zimbabwe
Aflatoxins Details Carcinoma, Hepatocellular
33. Shirima CP, et al. (2015). We investigated the association between child growth and aflatoxin and fumonisin exposure in Tanzania. Aflatoxins | fumonisin B1 Children Tanzania, United Republic of plasma | urine aflatoxin-albumin adduct | fumonisin B1 Details Growth Disorders
34. Fujiyoshi PT, et al. (2006). Air Force Health Study These results show that the mRNA ratio of SLC2A4 to NFKB1 is a reliable marker for the diabetogenic action of dioxin, particularly at very low exposure levels that are not much higher than those found in the general public. Agent Orange Veterans United States adipose tissue | serum Dioxins | NFKB1 | SLC2A4 Details Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
35. Zafar MB, et al. (2001). Agent Orange may have a role in the causation of some types of cancer but we identified no significant relationship of prostate cancer with Agent Orange exposure in patients referred for prostate biopsy. Agent Orange | Defoliants, Chemical Veterans United States Details Prostatic Neoplasms
36. Chamie K, et al. (2008). Individuals who were exposed to Agent Orange had an increased incidence of prostate cancer, developed the disease at a younger age, and had a more aggressive variant than their unexposed counterparts. Agent Orange | Defoliants, Chemical Veterans United States Details Prostatic Neoplasms
37. Michalek JE, et al. (2001). We found an increased risk of 'other liver disorders' among veterans with the highest dioxin levels; whether the associations observed were causal is unclear from these data. Agent Orange | Defoliants, Chemical Veterans United States serum Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin Details Liver Diseases
38. Kern PA, et al. (2004). These data suggest that high blood tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) levels, from exposure to Agent Orange, may promote an insulin-resistant state, but the magnitude of this effect appeared to be small, such that an 18-fold increase in blood TCDD resulted in only a 10% change in insulin sensitivity. Agent Orange | Defoliants, Chemical Veterans United States serum Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin Details Insulin Resistance
39. Beard JD, et al. (2016). Genes and Environmental Exposures in Veterans with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (GENEVA) We evaluated associations between military-related factors and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using data from a case-control study of US military veterans; among some of the positive associations (needing confirmation) were exposure to military herbicides, military nasopharyngeal radium, and Agent Orange. Agent Orange | Defoliants, Chemical | Radium Subjects with disease:Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis | Veterans United States Details Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
40. Kalkbrenner AE, et al. (2010). Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network (ADDM) Our screening design was limited by exposure misclassification of air pollutants and the use of an alternate developmental disorder as the control group, both of which may have biased results toward the null. Despite these limitations, methylene chloride, quinoline, and styrene emerged (based on this analysis and prior epidemiologic evidence) as candidates that warrant further investigation for a possible role in autism etiology. Air Pollutants United States air 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane | 1,3-butadiene | 1,3-dichloro-1-propene | Acetaldehyde | Acrolein | Acrylonitrile | Arsenicals | Benzene | Beryllium | Cadmium Compounds | Carbon Tetrachloride | Chloroform | Chromium Compounds | Coke | ethylbenzene | Ethylene Dibromide | ethylene dichloride | Ethylene Oxide | Formaldehyde | Hexachlorobenzene | Hexanes | hydrazine | Lead | Manganese Compounds | Mercury Compounds | Methylene Chloride | methyl tert-butyl ether | Nickel | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons | propionaldehyde | propylene dichloride | quinoline | Styrene | Tetrachloroethylene | Toluene | Trichloroethylene | Vehicle Emissions | Vinyl Chloride | Xylenes Details Autism Spectrum Disorder
41. Lebov JF, et al. (2016). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) In this study of male pesticide applicators, risk of end-stage renal disease increased with increasing cumulative exposure to several pesticides, including the herbicides alachlor, metolachlor, paraquat and pendimethalin, and the insecticide permethrin. alachlor | Aldicarb | Atrazine | Chlordan | Coumaphos | imazethapyr | metalaxyl | metolachlor | Paraquat | Parathion | pendimethalin | Permethrin | Petroleum | Phorate Workers United States Details Kidney Failure, Chronic
42. Montgomery MP, et al. (2008). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) Long-term exposure from handling certain pesticides, in particular organochlorine and organophosphate insecticides, may be associated with increased risk of diabetes. alachlor | Aldrin | Atrazine | Chlordan | Chlorpyrifos | Coumaphos | cyanazine | Diazinon | Dichlorvos | glyphosate | Heptachlor | metribuzin | Phorate | terbufos | Trichlorfon Workers United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Diabetes Mellitus
43. Starks SE, et al. (2012). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) This study provides some evidence that long-term exposure to organophosphate pesticides is associated with signs of impaired peripheral nervous system function among pesticide applicators. Aldicarb | Chlorpyrifos | Coumaphos | Dichlorvos | Dimethoate | Disulfoton | ethoprop | Fonofos | Phosmet | phostebupirim | Tetrachlorvinphos Workers United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Gait Disorders, Neurologic | Neurologic Manifestations | Reflex, Abnormal | Somatosensory Disorders | Tremor
44. Kamel F, et al. (2014). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) | Farming and Movement Evaluation Study (FAME) Polyunsaturated fatty acid intake was consistently associated with lower Parkinson's disease (PD) risk, and dietary fats modified the association of PD risk with pesticide exposure. alpha-Linolenic Acid | Fatty Acids | Fatty Acids, Unsaturated | Paraquat | Rotenone Controls for disease:Parkinson Disease | Subjects with disease:Parkinson Disease | Workers United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Parkinson Disease
45. Shin HM, et al. (2014). Early Autism Risk Longitudinal Investigation (EARLI) A total of six phthalates, four personal care product ingredients, and five flame retardants were analyzed in household dust from 30 homes in three different regions in the U.S. Aminobenzoates | Benzopyrans | butylbenzyl phthalate | Dibutyl Phthalate | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | diethyl phthalate | diisobutyl phthalate | diisononyl phthalate | Flame Retardants | octylmethoxycinnamate | Tetrahydronaphthalenes | triphenyl phosphate | tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate | tris(chloroethyl)phosphate United States dust Aminobenzoates | Benzopyrans | butylbenzyl phthalate | Dibutyl Phthalate | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | diethyl phthalate | diisobutyl phthalate | diisononyl phthalate | Flame Retardants | octylmethoxycinnamate | Tetrahydronaphthalenes | triphenyl phosphate | tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate | tris(chloroethyl)phosphate Details
46. Kaye JA, et al. (2014). The results support a comparatively high adjusted relative risk of liver injury among patients exposed concurrently to multiple antimicrobials and modest elevations in the risk for several antimicrobials used alone; however, we found little evidence of any strong effect of commonly used antimicrobials on the risk of liver injury. Amoxicillin | Anti-Infective Agents | Clavulanic Acid | Doxycycline | Levofloxacin | moxifloxacin Study subjects United States Details Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury
47. Adgent MA, et al. (2015). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Antibiotics, but not triclosan, are negatively associated with urinary enterolactone; further study of triclosan exposure and enterolactone production may be needed to better understand positive associations among women. age | body mass index | diet | race | sex | socioeconomic status Anti-Bacterial Agents | Lincomycin | Macrolides | Quinolones | Sulfonamides | Triclosan Study subjects United States urine 2,3-bis(3'-hydroxybenzyl)butyrolactone | Triclosan Details
48. Ma L, et al. (2016). We reveal that specific histone modifications are associated with arsenic exposure and oxidative damage, and persistent dysregulation of these histone modifications could be a potential biomarker that evaluates the burden of arsenic exposure and predicts the adverse biological effects. Arsenic Study subjects China hair | lymphocyte | plasma | urine 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine | Arsenic | Malondialdehyde Details Arsenic Poisoning | positive regulation of histone H3-K14 acetylation | positive regulation of histone H3-K18 acetylation | positive regulation of histone H3-K36 trimethylation | positive regulation of histone H3-K9 dimethylation
49. Pi J, et al. (2005). A 13-month arsenic exposure reduction effectively reverses the arsenic-induced impairment of the nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate pathway in both males and females and improves peripheral vascular function in males. Arsenic Study subjects China blood | urine | water Arsenic | Cyclic GMP Details Arsenic Poisoning | Vascular Diseases
50. Zablotska LB, et al. (2008). Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) Intakes of B-vitamins and antioxidants, at doses greater than the current recommended daily amounts for the country, may reduce the risk of arsenic-related skin lesions in Bangladesh. age | body mass index | sex | socioeconomic status Arsenic | Ascorbic Acid | Folic Acid | Pyridoxine | Riboflavin | Vitamin A | Vitamin E Study subjects Bangladesh Details Skin Ulcer
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