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Chemical Acids

These are exposure studies associated with the chemical and all of its children.

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1–50 of 54 results.
  Reference Associated Study Title Author's Summary Study Factors Stressor Receptors Country Medium Exposure Marker Measurements Outcome
1. Woodruff TJ, et al. (2011). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Our analysis of the NHANES pregnancy data shows ubiquitous exposure to multiple chemicals during a sensitive period of fetal development. 1-hydroxypyrene | 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabrominated diphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2-naphthol | 4-dichlorobenzene | Benzene | bisphenol A | Cadmium | Cotinine | DDT | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | diethyl phosphate | dimethyl phosphate | fluoren-9-ol | Hexachlorobenzene | Lead | Mercury | methyl tert-butyl ether | mono-benzyl phthalate | monobutyl phthalate | mono-isobutyl phthalate | O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate | O,O-dimethyl phosphorothionate | oxybenzone | PCB 180 | perchlorate | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | thiophosphoric acid | Toluene | Triclosan Pregnant females | Study subjects United States blood | serum | urine 1-hydroxypyrene | 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabrominated diphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2-naphthol | 4-dichlorobenzene | Benzene | bisphenol A | Cadmium | Cotinine | DDT | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | diethyl phosphate | dimethyl phosphate | fluoren-9-ol | Hexachlorobenzene | Lead | Mercury | methyl tert-butyl ether | mono-benzyl phthalate | monobutyl phthalate | mono-isobutyl phthalate | O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate | O,O-dimethyl phosphorothionate | oxybenzone | PCB 180 | perchlorate | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | thiophosphoric acid | Toluene | Triclosan Details
2. Braun JM, et al. (2014). Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) | National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) We used a semi-Bayesian hierarchical regression model to estimate associations between prenatal blood or urine concentrations of 52 suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals and autistic behaviors at 4 and 5 years of age in a prospective birth cohort of 175 mothers and their children. socioeconomic status | tobacco 2,2',3,3',4,4',5-heptachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabrominated diphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,4',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,4'-trichlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexabromobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',5'-pentachlorobiphenyl | beta-hexachlorocyclohexane | bisphenol A | DDT | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers | Hexachlorobenzene | hexadecafluoro-nonanoic acid | mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate | mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate | mono-benzyl phthalate | monobutyl phthalate | monoethyl phthalate | mono-isobutyl phthalate | nonachlor | oxychlordane | pentabromodiphenyl ether | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | phthalic acid | Polychlorinated Biphenyls Children | Pregnant females | Study subjects United States serum | urine 2,2',3,3',4,4',5-heptachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabrominated diphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,4',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,4'-trichlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexabromobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',5'-pentachlorobiphenyl | beta-hexachlorocyclohexane | bisphenol A | DDT | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers | Hexachlorobenzene | hexadecafluoro-nonanoic acid | mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate | mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate | mono-benzyl phthalate | monobutyl phthalate | monoethyl phthalate | mono-isobutyl phthalate | nonachlor | oxychlordane | pentabromodiphenyl ether | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | phthalic acid | Polychlorinated Biphenyls Details Autism Spectrum Disorder
3. Robinson O, et al. (2015). INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) Project In summary, the correlation analysis presented here of multiple environmental exposures among pregnant women provide a first picture of the structure of the exposome during the crucial in utero period. 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptabromodiphenyl ether | 2,2',3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',4,4',5-brominated diphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | Antimony | Arsenic | Benzene | beta-hexachlorocyclohexane | bisphenol A | Cadmium | Cesium | Chloroform | Cobalt | Copper | Cotinine | decabromobiphenyl ether | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | hexabrominated diphenyl ether 153 | hexabromodiphenyl ether 154 | Hexachlorobenzene | Lead | Mercury | Molybdenum | mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate | mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate | mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate | mono-benzyl phthalate | monobutyl phthalate | monoethyl phthalate | mono-isobutyl phthalate | Nickel | Nitric Oxide | Nitrogen Dioxide | Nitrogen Oxides | Particulate Matter | PCB 180 | pentabrominated diphenyl ether 100 | pentabromodiphenyl ether | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | Pesticides | Phthalic Acids | Selenium | Thallium | Tobacco Smoke Pollution | Trihalomethanes | Zinc Pregnant females Spain air | blood, cord | colostrum | serum | urine | water 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptabromodiphenyl ether | 2,2',3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',4,4',5-brominated diphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | Antimony | Arsenic | Benzene | beta-hexachlorocyclohexane | bisphenol A | Cadmium | Cesium | Chloroform | Cobalt | Copper | Cotinine | decabromobiphenyl ether | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | hexabrominated diphenyl ether 153 | hexabromodiphenyl ether 154 | Hexachlorobenzene | Lead | Mercury | Molybdenum | mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate | mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate | mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate | mono-benzyl phthalate | monobutyl phthalate | monoethyl phthalate | mono-isobutyl phthalate | Nickel | Nitric Oxide | Nitrogen Dioxide | Nitrogen Oxides | Particulate Matter | PCB 180 | pentabrominated diphenyl ether 100 | pentabromodiphenyl ether | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | Pesticides | Phthalic Acids | Selenium | Thallium | Tobacco Smoke Pollution | Trihalomethanes | Zinc Details
4. Makey CM, et al. (2016). Our findings suggest that polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure might decrease the binding of thyroxine (T4) to serum T4 binding proteins. 2,2',4,4',5-brominated diphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers | hexabrominated diphenyl ether 153 | pentabrominated diphenyl ether 100 | perchlorate | thiocyanate | Thyroxine | tribromodiphenyl ether 28 Workers United States serum | urine 2,2',4,4',5-brominated diphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers | hexabrominated diphenyl ether 153 | Iodine | Lipids | pentabrominated diphenyl ether 100 | perchlorate | thiocyanate | Thyroxine | tribromodiphenyl ether 28 | Triiodothyronine | TSHB Details thyroid hormone metabolic process
5. Lenters V, et al. (2016). In this study of mother-newborn pairs from Greenland, Poland, and Ukraine, prenatal exposure to a diethylhexyl phthalate metabolite (mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate), perfluorooctanoic acid, and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene were independently associated with lower birth weight in term newborns. 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated | perfluorodecanoic acid | perfluorododecanoic acid | perfluoroheptanoic acid | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | perfluoroundecanoic acid | phthalic acid Pregnant females Greenland|Poland|
Ukraine
serum 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | diisononyl phthalate | Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated | mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate | mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate | mono(carboxy-isooctyl)phthalate | perfluorodecanoic acid | perfluorododecanoic acid | perfluoroheptanoic acid | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | perfluoroundecanoic acid | phthalic acid Details Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
6. Fraser AJ, et al. (2013). Our investigation provides insight into concentrations of polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the dust of offices, homes and vehicles in the United States and represents a novel attempt to assess contributions of different exposure media and microenvironments on PFC body burdens. 8-2 fluorotelomer alcohol | Fluorocarbons | hexadecafluoro-nonanoic acid | Hydrocarbons, Fluorinated | perfluorobutane | perfluorobutyric acid | perfluoroheptanoic acid | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorohexanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Workers United States dust 8-2 fluorotelomer alcohol | Fluorocarbons | hexadecafluoro-nonanoic acid | Hydrocarbons, Fluorinated | perfluorobutane | perfluorobutyric acid | perfluoroheptanoic acid | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorohexanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Details
7. Fraser AJ, et al. (2012). Fluorotelomer alcohol concentrations in office air significantly predict serum perfluorooctanoate concentrations in office workers. 8-2 fluorotelomer alcohol | Hydrocarbons, Fluorinated Workers United States air | serum 2-(N-ethylperfluorooctanesulfonamido)ethyl alcohol | 8-2 fluorotelomer alcohol | Hydrocarbons, Fluorinated | perfluorodecanoic acid | perfluorododecanoic acid | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorohexanoic acid | perfluorooctanesulfonamide | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Details
8. López-Abente G, et al. (2012). Statistically significant relative risks for colorectal cancer mortality at a municipal level were detected in the vicinity of mining industry, paper and wood production, food and beverage sector, metal production and processing installations, and ceramics. Air Pollutants Study subjects Spain air, outdoor 1,1,1-trichloroethane | Ammonia | anthracene | Antimony | Arsenicals | Arsenic | Benzene | beta-hexachlorocyclohexane | Cadmium | Cadmium Compounds | Carbon Dioxide | Carbon Monoxide | Carbon Tetrachloride | Chlorine | Chlorine Compounds | Chlorofluorocarbons | Chloroform | Chromium | Chromium Compounds | Cobalt | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | Dioxins | ethylene dichloride | Ethylene Oxide | Fluorine | Fluorine Compounds | Hexachlorobenzene | Hydrogen Cyanide | Lead | Manganese | Manganese Compounds | Mercury | Mercury Compounds | Methane | Methylene Chloride | naphthalene | Nickel | Nitrogen Oxides | Nitrous Oxide | Particulate Matter | Pentachlorophenol | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | Sulfur Oxides | Tetrachloroethylene | Thallium | trichlorobenzene | Trichloroethylene | Vanadium | Vanadium Compounds | Vinyl Chloride | Zinc | Zinc Compounds Details Colorectal Neoplasms | Death
9. Macey GP, et al. (2014). Levels of eight volatile chemicals exceeded federal guidelines under several operational circumstances. Benzene, formaldehyde, and hydrogen sulfide were the most common compounds to exceed acute and other health-based risk levels. Benzene | ethylbenzene | Formaldehyde | Hydrogen Sulfide | n-hexane | Toluene | Xylenes United States air Benzene | ethylbenzene | Formaldehyde | Hydrogen Sulfide | n-hexane | Toluene | Xylenes Details
10. Nelson JW, et al. (2012). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) In these data, family income with adjustment for family size was the strongest predictor of bisphenol A and polyfluoroalkyl chemicals levels among the different measures of socioeconomic position we studied. socioeconomic status bisphenol A Children | Study subjects United States serum | urine bisphenol A | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluoro-n-nonanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Details
11. Yeatts KB, et al. (2012). This study provides new information regarding potential health risks from pollutants commonly found in indoor environments in the United Arab Emirates and other countries. Carbon Monoxide | Formaldehyde | Hydrogen Sulfide | Nitrogen Dioxide | Particulate Matter | Sulfur Dioxide | Tobacco Smoke Pollution Study subjects United Arab Emirates air Carbon Monoxide | Formaldehyde | Hydrogen Sulfide | Nitrogen Dioxide | Particulate Matter | Sulfur Dioxide | Tobacco Smoke Pollution Details Asthma | Respiratory Sounds
12. Valentín-Blasini L, et al. (2011). Study of Estrogen Activity and Development (SEAD) We measured perchlorate and related anions (nitrate, thiocyanate, and iodide) in 206 urine samples from 92 infants ages 1-377 days and calculated perchlorate intake dose for this sample of infants. Estimated exposure dose differed by feeding method. diet Creatinine | Iodides | Nitrates | perchlorate | thiocyanate Infants or newborns United States urine Creatinine | Iodides | Nitrates | perchlorate | thiocyanate Details
13. Mervish N, et al. (2012). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) The results of the present study demonstrate fair temporal reliability in the spot urine concentrations of the three sodium iodide symporter inhibitors and iodide. Creatinine | Iodides | Nitrates | perchlorate | thiocyanate Children United States urine Creatinine | Iodides | Nitrates | perchlorate | thiocyanate Details
14. Ye M, et al. (2016). Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) The negative association between the sum of dialkyl phosphates and lung function in adult participants suggests a detrimental effect of organophosphate pesticides on lung function in the adult general population. diethyl phosphate | dimethyl phosphate | O,O-diethyl dithiophosphate | O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate | O,O-dimethyl phosphorothionate | Organophosphates | thiophosphoric acid Children | Study subjects Canada urine diethyl phosphate | dimethyl phosphate | O,O-diethyl dithiophosphate | O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate | O,O-dimethyl phosphorothionate | Organophosphates | thiophosphoric acid Details respiratory system process
15. Perry MJ, et al. (2011). We investigated whether there was an association between urinary organophosphorous insecticide metabolites and sperm concentration and motility in newly married men from a rural area of eastern People's Republic of China. diethyl phosphate | dimethyl phosphate | O,O-diethyl dithiophosphate | O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate | O,O-dimethyl phosphorothionate | thiophosphoric acid Controls for disease:Infertility, Male | Subjects with disease:Infertility, Male China urine diethyl phosphate | dimethyl phosphate | O,O-diethyl dithiophosphate | O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate | O,O-dimethyl phosphorothionate | thiophosphoric acid Details spermatid development | sperm motility
16. Liu P, et al. (2016). Both prenatal and postnatal organophosphorous exposure may adversely affect the neurodevelopment of infants living in the agricultural area. sex diethyl phosphate | Organophosphorus Compounds Children | Mothers China urine diethyl phosphate | dimethyl phosphate | O,O-diethyl dithiophosphate | O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate | O,O-dimethyl phosphorothionate | Organophosphorus Compounds | thiophosphoric acid Details Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects | cognition | developmental process | head development | motor activity | social behavior
17. Knobeloch L, et al. (2012). In an effort to assess residential exposure, we tested vacuum cleaner dust from 39 Wisconsin homes for several perflouroalkyl chemicals; the most commonly detected compounds were perfluorooctanesulfonate, perfluorohexanesulfonate, and perfluorooctanoic acid. Dust Study subjects United States dust, indoor perfluorobutyric acid | perfluorodecanoic acid | perfluorododecanoic acid | perfluoroheptanoic acid | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorohexanoic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | perfluoroundecanoic acid Details
18. Wattigney WA, et al. (2015). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) We examined serum levels of persistent organic pollutants among four geographical U.S. regions (northeast, midwest, south, and west); differences in higher body burdens of exposure could be attributed to region-specific patterns of land use, industrial and agricultural chemical applications, and different levels of regulatory activity. Environmental Pollutants Study subjects United States serum 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzodioxin | 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzodioxin | 2,2',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2,4,4',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,4'-trichlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',5'-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,5,2',5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | hexabrominated diphenyl ether 153 | pentabrominated diphenyl ether 100 | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | tribromodiphenyl ether 28 Details
19. Berg V, et al. (2017). Northern Norway Mother-and-Child Contaminant Cohort Study (MISA) The present results suggest that background exposures to persistent organic pollutants can alter maternal thyroid homeostasis. Environmental Pollutants | Hexachlorobenzene | nonachlor | perfluorodecanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluoroundecanoic acid | Pesticides | Polychlorinated Biphenyls Pregnant females Norway serum 2,2',3,3',4,4',5-heptachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',3,4',5,5',6-heptachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | Hexachlorobenzene | nonachlor | PCB 180 | perfluorodecanoic acid | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | perfluoroundecanoic acid | Thyroxine | Triiodothyronine | TSHB Details thyroid hormone generation | thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion
20. Schecter A, et al. (2012). Our results show that several Polyfluoroalkyl Compounds (PFCs) were detectable in children in Dallas, Texas, in 2009, including those born after changes in PFC manufacturing occurred. Fluorocarbons Children United States serum perfluorodecanoic acid | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluoro-n-nonanoic acid | perfluorooctanesulfonamide | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Details
21. Fan H, et al. (2014). C8 Health Project (C8HP) Using 2005-2006 data from a large perfluorocarbon (PFC)-exposure population survey, we compared serum PFCs concentrations between Gilbert Syndrome (GS) and non GS clinical phenotypes, in a cross sectional design, adjusting for standard risk factors, including age, body mass index, smoking status, socioeconomic status and gender. sex Fluorocarbons | perfluorodecanoic acid | perfluorododecanoic acid | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorohexanoic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | perfluoroundecanoic acid Controls for disease:Gilbert Disease | Subjects with disease:Gilbert Disease | Study subjects United States serum Fluorocarbons | perfluorodecanoic acid | perfluorododecanoic acid | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorohexanoic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | perfluoroundecanoic acid Details Gilbert Disease
22. Lopez-Espinosa MJ, et al. (2016). C8 Health Project (C8HP) We found serum perfluoroalkyl substances concentrations to be associated with lower levels of sex hormones and IGF-1 in children aged 6-9 years. Fluorocarbons | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Children United States serum Estradiol | IGF1 | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | Testosterone Details estradiol secretion | gene expression | testosterone secretion
23. Webster GM, et al. (2016). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) We found evidence of perfluoroalkyl acids-associated thyroid disruption in a subset of U.S. adults with high thyroid peroxidase antibody (a marker of autoimmune hypothyroidism) and low iodine status, who may represent a vulnerable subgroup. sex hexadecafluoro-nonanoic acid | Iodine | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Study subjects United States serum | urine hexadecafluoro-nonanoic acid | Iodine | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | Thyrotropin | Thyroxine | Triiodothyronine Details thyroid hormone metabolic process
24. Grandjean P, et al. (2016). Diphtheria antibody concentrations decreased at elevated perfluorinated alkylate substance concentrations at ages 13 and 7 years, associations being statistically significant for perfluorodecanoate at age 7 and perfluorooctanoate at age 13, both suggesting a decrease by about 25% for each doubling of exposure. hexadecafluoro-nonanoic acid | perfluorodecanoic acid | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Children Faroe Islands serum hexadecafluoro-nonanoic acid | perfluorodecanoic acid | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Details IgG immunoglobulin complex, circulating
25. Calafat AM, et al. (2007). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) In the general U.S. population in 2003-2004, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorohexane sulfonic acid, and perfluorononanoic acid serum concentrations were measurable in each demographic population group studied. hexadecafluoro-nonanoic acid | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Study subjects United States serum hexadecafluoro-nonanoic acid | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Details
26. Mora AM, et al. (2016). Project Viva In this cohort, prenatal exposure to PFASs was associated with small increases in adiposity measurements in mid-childhood, but only among girls. sex hexadecafluoro-nonanoic acid | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Children | Pregnant females United States plasma hexadecafluoro-nonanoic acid | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid Details Obesity | adipose tissue development
27. Borg D, et al. (2013). The objective of this study was to for the first time perform a cumulative health risk assessment of the 17 perfluoroalkylated and polyfluoroalkylated substances measured in the Swedish population, individually and in combination, using the Hazard Index approach. Hydrocarbons, Fluorinated | perfluorobutane | perfluorobutyric acid | perfluorodecanoic acid | perfluorododecanoic acid | perfluoroheptanoic acid | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorohexanoic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctanesulfonamide | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | perfluoroundecanoic acid Study subjects | Workers Sweden serum Hydrocarbons, Fluorinated | perfluorobutane | perfluorobutyric acid | perfluorodecanoic acid | perfluorododecanoic acid | perfluoroheptanoic acid | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorohexanoic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctanesulfonamide | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | perfluoroundecanoic acid Details Liver Diseases | immune response | mammary gland development | reproductive process
28. Weihe P, et al. (2008). To determine the prevalence and magnitude of exposure to polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in the Faroe Islands, we measured the serum concentrations of 9 PFCs in two Faroese population groups. Hydrocarbons, Halogenated Children | Pregnant females Faroe Islands serum perfluorodecanoic acid | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluoro-n-nonanoic acid | perfluorooctanesulfonamide | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Details
29. Clune AL, et al. (2012). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Human exposure to organophosphorus insecticides as assessed by urinary dialkylphosphate concentrations has decreased since the implementation of the Food Quality Protection Act, although we cannot be certain that U.S. EPA actions in response to the Food Quality Protection Act directly caused the decrease in dialkylphosphate concentrations. Insecticides | Organophosphorus Compounds Study subjects United States urine dimethyl phosphate | thiophosphoric acid Details
30. Steinmaus C, et al. (2016). Project Baby's Breath (PBB) Our results suggest that environmental perchlorate exposures may affect thyroid hormone production during pregnancy. Iodides | Nitrates | perchlorate | thiocyanate Pregnant females United States serum | urine Iodides | Nitrates | perchlorate | thiocyanate | Thyroxine | TSHB Details regulation of thyroid hormone generation
31. Cao Y, et al. (2010). Study of Estrogen Activity and Development (SEAD) The association of perchlorate exposure with increased urinary thyroid-stimulating hormone in infants with low urinary iodide is consistent with previous findings. Higher thiocyanate and nitrate exposure were also associated with higher thyroid-stimulating hormone in infants. Iodides | Nitrates | perchlorate | thiocyanate Infants or newborns United States blood | urine Iodides | Nitrates | perchlorate | thiocyanate | Thyroxine | TSHB Details hormone secretion | thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion
32. Mervish NA, et al. (2016). Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Project (BCERP) | National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) We examined whether exposure to sodium/iodide symporter inhibitors measured at one time point were associated with height, waist circumference, and body mass index trajectories during childhood in an established cohort group of young girls with adequate iodine intake. Iodides | Nitrates | perchlorate | thiocyanate | Tobacco Smoke Pollution Children United States urine Iodides | Nitrates | perchlorate | thiocyanate Details developmental growth
33. English P, et al. (2011). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Our sample of 31 residents had higher perchlorate dose levels compared with national reference ranges. Although none of our exposure estimates exceeded the U. S. EPA reference dose, three participants exceeded the acceptable daily dose. Iodine | Nitrates | perchlorate | thiocyanate Study subjects United States produce | urine | water, drinking Iodine | Nitrates | perchlorate | thiocyanate Details
34. Khalil N, et al. (2016). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) In a representative sample of the U.S. adult population, serum perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) concentrations were associated with lower bone mineral density, which varied according to the specific PFAS and bone site assessed. sex Lead | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Study subjects United States blood | serum Lead | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Details Osteoporosis | bone mineralization
35. Olsen GW, et al. (2005). The present study was designed to assess the concentration trends of perfluorooctanesulfonate, perfluorooctanoate, and five other fluorochemicals in blood samples from individuals in the general population who resided near Washington County, Maryland, between 1974 and 1989. age N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamido acetate | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | Sulfonamides Study subjects United States plasma | serum N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamido acetate | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | Sulfonamides Details
36. Castorina R, et al. (2003). Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) Our results suggest that a small portion of pregnant women participating in the CHAMACOS study may have cumulative organophosphate pesticide exposures exceeding a health-protective reference value. Organophosphates Pregnant females United States urine Chlorpyrifos | Diazinon | diethyl phosphate | Dimethoate | dimethyl phosphate | Disulfoton | Malathion | methidathion | methyl demeton | Naled | O,O-diethyl dithiophosphate | O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate | O,O-dimethyl phosphorothionate | thiophosphoric acid Details
37. Bradman A, et al. (2011). Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) Our findings suggest that there are multiple determinants of organophosphorus pesticide exposures, notably dietary intake and temporal and spatial proximity to agricultural use. diet Organophosphorus Compounds Children United States urine diethyl phosphate | dimethyl phosphate | O,O-diethyl dithiophosphate | O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate | O,O-dimethyl phosphorothionate | thiophosphoric acid Details organophosphate metabolic process
38. Blount BC, et al. (2007). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) We provide the first population-based assessment of the magnitude and prevalence of perchlorate exposure in the US; after adjustment for age, creatinine, fasting, sex, and race/ethnicity, perchlorate levels in urine were higher in children compared with adolescents or adults, and we found a significant interaction between sex and race/ethnicity. age | race | sex perchlorate Children | Pregnant females | Study subjects United States urine perchlorate Details
39. Schreinemachers DM, et al. (2015). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) This study investigated associations between urinary perchlorate and biomarkers of oxidative stress and iron homeostasis, including blood urea nitrogen, lymphocyte counts, serum uric acid, serum iron, and red blood cell counts. perchlorate Study subjects United States serum | urine Iron | perchlorate | Uric Acid Details erythrocyte homeostasis | iron ion homeostasis | lymphocyte homeostasis
40. Hölzer J, et al. (2008). Perfluorinated compound (PFC) concentrations in blood plasma of children and adults exposed to PFC-contaminated drinking water were increased 4- to 8-fold compared with controls. age | sex perfluorobutanesulfonic acid | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Children | Mothers | Study subjects Germany plasma perfluorobutanesulfonic acid | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Details
41. Wang Y, et al. (2014). Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study Our results suggest that exposure to some perfluoroalkyl substances during pregnancy may interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis in pregnant women and fetuses. perfluorodecanoic acid | perfluorododecanoic acid | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | perfluoroundecanoic acid Infants or newborns | Pregnant females Taiwan, Province of China serum perfluorodecanoic acid | perfluorododecanoic acid | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | perfluoroundecanoic acid Details thyroid hormone metabolic process | thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion
42. Grandjean P, et al. (2012). Elevated exposures to perfluorinated compounds were associated with reduced humoral immune response to routine childhood immunizations in children aged 5 and 7 years. perfluorodecanoic acid | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Children | Mothers Faroe Islands serum perfluorodecanoic acid | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Details Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects | humoral immune response mediated by circulating immunoglobulin
43. Fleisch AF, et al. (2017). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) | Project Viva We found no evidence for an adverse effect of early life perfluoroalkyl substances exposure on metabolic function in mid-childhood; in fact, children with higher perfluoroalkyl substances had lower insulin resistance, and this inverse association was more pronounced in females. sex perfluorodecanoic acid | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Children | Pregnant females | Study subjects United States plasma perfluorodecanoic acid | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Details Insulin Resistance
44. Bach CC, et al. (2016). Aarhus Birth Cohort (ABC) Overall, we did not find strong or consistent associations between perfluoroalkyl acids and birth weight, birth length, or head circumference, though estimated mean birth weights were lower among those with exposures above the lowest quartile for some compounds. perfluorodecanoic acid | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | perfluoroundecanoic acid Mothers Denmark serum perfluorodecanoic acid | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | perfluoroundecanoic acid Details
45. Steenland K, et al. (2009). C8 Health Project (C8HP) A cross-sectional study of lipids and Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate was conducted among 46,294 community residents aged 18 years or above, who drank water contaminated with PFOA from a chemical plant in West Virginia. perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluoro-n-nonanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Study subjects United States serum perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluoro-n-nonanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Details cholesterol metabolic process
46. Hoffman K, et al. (2010). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Our results, using cross-sectional data, are consistent with increased odds of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children with higher serum polyfluoroalkyl chemicals levels. sex | tobacco perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Children United States serum perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Details Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
47. Jørgensen KT, et al. (2014). INUENDO Our findings do not provide consistent evidence that environmental exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances impairs female fecundity by delaying time taken to conceive. perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Pregnant females Greenland|Poland|
Ukraine
serum perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Details female pregnancy
48. Ducatman A, et al. (2015). C8 Health Project (C8HP) Perfluoroalkyl acids are not consistently associated with prostate-specific antigen concentration in general, or with prostate-specific antigen level more than 4.0; these findings do not provide evidence that perfluoroalkyl acid exposure is associated with prostate-specific antigen. perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Study subjects United States serum perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Details
49. Watkins DJ, et al. (2013). C8 Health Project (C8HP) Our findings suggest that the cross-sectional association between estimated glomerular filtration rate and serum perfluorooctanoic acid observed in this and prior studies may be a consequence of, rather than a cause of, decreased kidney function. perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Children United States serum perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Details glomerular filtration
50. Nelson JW, et al. (2010). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) We observed a positive association between concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, perfluorooctanoic acid, and perfluorononanoic acid, and total and non-high-density cholesterol. We found the opposite for perfluorohexane sulfonic acid. perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Study subjects United States serum perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Details cholesterol biosynthetic process
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