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Chemical Aldehydes

These are exposure studies associated with the chemical and all of its children.

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  Reference Associated Study Title Author's Summary Study Factors Stressor Receptors Country Medium Exposure Marker Measurements Outcome
1. Sexton K, et al. (2007). Our aim was to compare and rank relative health risks of 179 air pollutants in Houston using an evidence-based approach supplemented by the expert judgment of a panel of academic scientists. 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane | 1,3-butadiene | 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate | Acetaldehyde | Acrolein | acrylic acid | Acrylonitrile | Arsenicals | Benzene | Carbon Tetrachloride | Chlorine | chromium hexavalent ion | Ethylene Dibromide | ethylene dichloride | Ethylene Oxide | Formaldehyde | naphthalene | Ozone | Particulate Matter | Vehicle Emissions | Vinyl Chloride Study subjects United States Details Disorders of Environmental Origin | Neoplasms
2. Loh MM, et al. (2007). In this study we compared cancer risks from organic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) based on total personal exposure summed across different microenvironments and exposure pathways. 1,12-benzoperylene | 1,2,5,6-dibenzanthracene | 1,3-butadiene | 1,3-dichloro-1-propene | 4-dichlorobenzene | Acetaldehyde | anthracene | benz(a)anthracene | Benzene | Benzo(a)pyrene | benzo(b)fluoranthene | Carbon Tetrachloride | Chloroform | chrysene | Dioxins | Ethylene Dibromide | ethylene dichloride | fluoranthene | Formaldehyde | indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene | Methylene Chloride | naphthalene | phenanthrene | Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons | pyrene | Tetrachloroethylene | Trichloroethylene | Vinyl Chloride Study subjects United States 1,12-benzoperylene | 1,2,5,6-dibenzanthracene | 1,3-butadiene | 1,3-dichloro-1-propene | 4-dichlorobenzene | Acetaldehyde | anthracene | benz(a)anthracene | Benzene | Benzo(a)pyrene | benzo(b)fluoranthene | Carbon Tetrachloride | Chloroform | chrysene | Dioxins | Ethylene Dibromide | ethylene dichloride | fluoranthene | Formaldehyde | indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene | Methylene Chloride | naphthalene | phenanthrene | Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons | pyrene | Tetrachloroethylene | Trichloroethylene | Vinyl Chloride Details Neoplasms
3. von Ehrenstein OS, et al. (2016). California Cancer Registry Our data suggest that in utero and infancy exposures to air toxics generated by industrial and road traffic sources may increase the risk of primitive neuroectodermal tumor and medulloblastoma, with limited support for increased risks for astrocytoma in children up to age 6. 1,12-benzoperylene | 1,2,5,6-dibenzanthracene | 1,3-butadiene | 2-dichlorobenzene | 2-xylene | 4-dichlorobenzene | Acetaldehyde | Benzene | Benzo(a)pyrene | benzo(b)fluoranthene | benzo(k)fluoranthene | Chloroform | Chromium | chromium hexavalent ion | ethylbenzene | Formaldehyde | indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene | Lead | Methylene Chloride | Nickel | Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons | Selenium | Styrene | Tetrachloroethylene | Toluene | Trichloroethylene Study subjects United States air 1,12-benzoperylene | 1,2,5,6-dibenzanthracene | 1,3-butadiene | 2-dichlorobenzene | 2-xylene | 4-dichlorobenzene | Acetaldehyde | Benzene | Benzo(a)pyrene | benzo(b)fluoranthene | benzo(k)fluoranthene | Chloroform | Chromium | chromium hexavalent ion | ethylbenzene | Formaldehyde | indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene | Lead | Methylene Chloride | Nickel | Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons | Selenium | Styrene | Tetrachloroethylene | Toluene | Trichloroethylene Details Astrocytoma | Medulloblastoma | Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive
4. Varlet V, et al. (2015). We analyzed 42 models from 14 brands of refill liquids for e-cigarettes for the presence of micro-organisms, diethylene glycol, ethylene glycol, hydrocarbons, ethanol, aldehydes, tobacco-specific nitrosamines, and solvents. 1,1-diethoxyethane | 1,3-butadiene | 1-Butanol | 1-Propanol | 2-butenal | 2-methylbenzaldehyde | 3-methylbenzaldehyde | 4-cymene | 4-methylbenzaldehyde | Acetaldehyde | Acetoin | Acetone | Acrolein | alpha-pinene | benzaldehyde | beta-pinene | butyraldehyde | Cyclohexane | Diacetyl | diethylene glycol | Ethanol | ethyl acetate | Ethylene Glycol | ethyl propionate | Formaldehyde | gamma-terpinene | Hydrocarbons | isobutyl acetate | isovalerylaldehyde | Limonene | n-hexanal | Nitrosamines | pentanal | propionaldehyde Switzerland e-cigarette, liquid 1,1-diethoxyethane | 1,3-butadiene | 1-Butanol | 1-Propanol | 2-butenal | 2-methylbenzaldehyde | 3-methylbenzaldehyde | 4-cymene | 4-methylbenzaldehyde | Acetaldehyde | Acetoin | Acetone | Acrolein | alpha-pinene | benzaldehyde | beta-pinene | butyraldehyde | Cyclohexane | Diacetyl | diethylene glycol | Ethanol | ethyl acetate | Ethylene Glycol | ethyl propionate | Formaldehyde | gamma-terpinene | Hydrocarbons | isobutyl acetate | isovalerylaldehyde | Limonene | n-hexanal | Nitrosamines | pentanal | propionaldehyde Details
5. Goniewicz ML, et al. (2018). Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study These findings provide evidence that using combusted tobacco cigarettes alone or in combination with e-cigarettes is associated with higher concentrations of potentially harmful tobacco constituents in comparison with using e-cigarettes alone. tobacco 1,3-butadiene | 1-hydroxyphenanthrene | 1-hydroxypyrene | 1-naphthol | 2-butenal | 2-hydroxyfluorene | 2-naphthol | 4-(methylnitrosoamino)-4-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol | Acrolein | Acrylamide | Acrylonitrile | Anabasine | anatabine | Arsenic | Benzene | Beryllium | Cadmium | Carbon Disulfide | Cobalt | Cotinine | cotinine-N-oxide | Dimethylformamide | ethylbenzene | Ethylene Oxide | Fluorenes | hydroxycotinine | Isocyanates | isoprene | Lead | mandelic acid | Manganese | nicotine 1-N-oxide | Nicotine | N'-nitrosoanabasine | N'-nitrosoanatabine | N'-nitrosonornicotine | norcotinine | nornicotine | Phenanthrenes | propylene oxide | Strontium | Styrene | Thallium | Toluene | Uranium | Vinyl Chloride | Xylenes Study subjects United States urine 1,3-butadiene | 1-hydroxyphenanthrene | 1-hydroxypyrene | 1-naphthol | 2-butenal | 2-hydroxyfluorene | 2-methylhippuric acid | 2-naphthol | 4-(methylnitrosoamino)-4-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol | Acrolein | Acrylamide | Acrylonitrile | Anabasine | anatabine | Arsenic | Benzene | Beryllium | Cadmium | Carbon Disulfide | Cobalt | Cotinine | cotinine-N-oxide | Dimethylformamide | Fluorenes | Hippurates | hydroxycotinine | isoprene | Lead | mandelic acid | Manganese | N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine | N-acetyl-S-(2-cyanoethyl)cysteine | N-acetyl-S-(2-hydroxyethyl)cysteine | nicotine 1-N-oxide | Nicotine | N'-nitrosoanabasine | N'-nitrosoanatabine | N'-nitrosonornicotine | norcotinine | nornicotine | Phenanthrenes | phenylglyoxylic acid | propylene oxide | S-(3-hydroxypropyl)cysteine N-acetate | S-benzyl-N-acetyl-L-cysteine | Strontium | Thallium | Uranium Details
6. Shahab L, et al. (2017). This study assessed whether long-term e-cigarette (EC)-only, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT)-only, dual cigarette-EC or dual cigarette-NRT use is associated with differences in metabolites of a) nicotine; b) tobacco-specific nitrosaminess and c) volatile organic compounds (VOC) compared with cigarette-only smokers. tobacco 1,3-butadiene | 2-butenal | 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone | Acrolein | Acrylamide | Acrylonitrile | Anabasine | anatabine | Benzene | Carbon Disulfide | Cyanides | Dimethylformamide | ethylbenzene | Ethylene Oxide | Nicotine | N'-nitrosoanabasine | N'-nitrosoanatabine | propylene oxide | Styrene | Vinyl Chloride | Xylenes Study subjects United Kingdom saliva | urine 1,3-butadiene | 2-amino-delta(2)-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid | 2-butenal | 2-methylhippuric acid | 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butan-1-ol | Acrolein | Acrylamide | Acrylonitrile | Anabasine | anatabine | Benzene | Cotinine | cotinine-N-oxide | Dimethylformamide | Hippurates | hydroxycotinine | mandelic acid | muconic acid | N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine | nicotine 1-N-oxide | Nicotine | N'-nitrosoanabasine | N'-nitrosoanatabine | norcotinine | nornicotine | phenylglyoxylic acid | propylene oxide | raphanusamic acid | S-(3-hydroxypropyl)cysteine N-acetate | Styrene Details
7. Goniewicz ML, et al. (2017). This study showed for the first time that after switching from tobacco to e-cigarettes, nicotine exposure remains unchanged, while exposure to selected carcinogens and toxicants is substantially reduced. tobacco 1,3-butadiene | 2-butenal | 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone | Acrolein | Acrylamide | Acrylonitrile | Benzene | Carbon Monoxide | Ethylene Oxide | fluorene | naphthalene | Nicotine | phenanthrene | propylene oxide | pyrene Study subjects Poland urine 1-hydroxyphenanthrene | 1-hydroxypyrene | 2-hydroxyfluorene | 2-naphthol | 3-hydroxy-1-methylpropylmercapturic acid | 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butan-1-ol | Acetylcysteine | Carbon Monoxide | Cotinine | cotinine-N-oxide | fluorene | hydroxycotinine | N-acetyl-S-(2-hydroxyethyl)cysteine | nicotine 1-N-oxide | Nicotine | norcotinine | nornicotine | phenanthrene | S-phenyl-N-acetylcysteine Details
8. Rubinstein ML, et al. (2018). Overall results reveal significantly greater toxicant exposure in adolescent e-cigarette users compared with their nonusing peers. tobacco 1,3-butadiene | 2-butenal | Acrolein | Acrylamide | Acrylonitrile | Benzene | Ethylene Oxide | Nicotine | propylene oxide | Tobacco Smoke Pollution Children United States saliva | urine 1,3-butadiene | 3-hydroxy-1-methylpropylmercapturic acid | 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butan-1-ol | Acrylamide | Cotinine | N-acetyl-S-(2-cyanoethyl)cysteine | N-acetyl-S-(2-hydroxyethyl)cysteine | propylene oxide | S-(3-hydroxypropyl)cysteine N-acetate | S-phenyl-N-acetylcysteine Details
9. Kalkbrenner AE, et al. (2018). Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) Some air toxics were associated with autism spectrum disorder risk and severity, including some traffic-related air pollutants and newly-reported associations, but other previously reported associations with metals and volatile organic compounds were not reproducible. 1,4-dioxane | 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate | 4-dichlorobenzene | benzidine | bromoform | Carbon Disulfide | chlorobenzene | Dibenzofurans | methyl tert-butyl ether | propionaldehyde | Urethane Subjects with disease:Autism Spectrum Disorder United States Details Autism Spectrum Disorder
10. Svedberg UR, et al. (2004). High levels of hexanal and carbon monoxide were strongly associated with storage of wood pellets and may constitute an occupational and domestic health hazard. 1-Butanol | 2-heptenal | Acetone | Aldehydes | butyraldehyde | Carbon Monoxide | decanaldehyde | formic acid | heptanal | Methanol | n-hexanal | nonanal | pentanal | Terpenes | Toluene Study subjects Sweden air 1-Butanol | 2-heptenal | Acetone | Aldehydes | butyraldehyde | Carbon Monoxide | decanaldehyde | formic acid | heptanal | Methanol | n-hexanal | nonanal | pentanal | Terpenes | Toluene Details
11. Aszyk J, et al. (2017). A gas chromatography-electron ionization-mass spectometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of 46 commonly used flavour additives in e-liquids. 1-hexanol | 3,4-dihydrocoumarin | 3-hexen-1-ol | 4-Butyrolactone | alpha-terpineol | anisyl acetate | benzaldehyde | benzyl acetate | Benzyl Alcohol | citronellol | decan-4-olide | decanaldehyde | ethyl hexanoate | Eugenol | Furaldehyde | furfuryl alcohol | isoamyl acetate | Limonene | linalyl acetate | methyl acetate | n-pentanol | raspberry ketone Poland e-cigarette, liquid 1-hexanol | 3,4-dihydrocoumarin | 3-hexen-1-ol | 4-Butyrolactone | alpha-terpineol | anisyl acetate | benzaldehyde | benzyl acetate | Benzyl Alcohol | citronellol | decan-4-olide | decanaldehyde | ethyl hexanoate | Eugenol | Furaldehyde | furfuryl alcohol | isoamyl acetate | Limonene | linalyl acetate | methyl acetate | n-pentanol | raspberry ketone Details
12. Cicalese L, et al. (2017). In our study, we showed that selected relevant air pollutants produce a significant clustering of the Texan counties with respect to their concentration and discussed about the incidence rate distributions of liver cancer over the identified clusters. 2,2,4-trimethylpentane | Benzene | ethylbenzene | Formaldehyde | Hexanes | Hydrochloric Acid | Methanol | methyl tert-butyl ether | Toluene | Xylenes Study subjects United States Details Liver Neoplasms
13. Aszyk J, et al. (2017). Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of 42 flavouring compounds and nicotine in liquids for e-cigarettes. 2,5-dimethylpyrazine | 2,6-lutidine | 2-acetylpyrrole | 5-methyl-2-furfural | benzyl acetate | cyclotene | diethyl succinate | ethyl acetoacetate | ethyl lactate | ethyl maltol | ethyl vanillin | furaneol | gamma-valerolactone | linalool | maltol | Menthol | menthone | methyl cinnamate | methylheptenone | methyl salicylate | Nicotine | pyridine | tetramethylpyrazine | vanillin Poland e-cigarette 2,5-dimethylpyrazine | 2,6-lutidine | 2-acetylpyrrole | 5-methyl-2-furfural | benzyl acetate | cyclotene | diethyl succinate | ethyl acetoacetate | ethyl lactate | ethyl maltol | ethyl vanillin | furaneol | gamma-valerolactone | linalool | maltol | Menthol | menthone | methyl cinnamate | methylheptenone | methyl salicylate | Nicotine | pyridine | tetramethylpyrazine | vanillin Details
14. Farsalinos KE, et al. (2015). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nicotine delivery potential of a new-generation electronic cigarette (EC) device in a group of smokers with no previous experience in EC use compared to a group of experienced vapers, and to examine the association between nicotine absorption and puffing topography. tobacco 2-butenal | 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone | Acetaldehyde | Aldehydes | Arsenic | Chromium | Diacetyl | diethylene glycol | Formaldehyde | Glycerol | Lead | Metals, Heavy | Nickel | Nicotine | Nitrosamines | N'-nitrosonornicotine | Propylene Glycol Study subjects Greece e-cigarette, liquid | plasma 2-butenal | 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone | Acetaldehyde | Aldehydes | Arsenic | Chromium | Diacetyl | diethylene glycol | Formaldehyde | Glycerol | Lead | Metals, Heavy | Nickel | Nicotine | Nitrosamines | N'-nitrosonornicotine | Propylene Glycol Details
15. Bitzer ZT, et al. (2018). In this study, we examined free radical, nicotine, and carbonyl delivery from the standardized research e-cigarette (SREC), Blu and Vuse under different puffing parameters to capture the likely changes across different user behaviors. 2-butenal | Acetaldehyde | Acetone | Acrolein | Formaldehyde | Free Radicals | methylethyl ketone | Nicotine | propionaldehyde United States e-cigarette, vapor 2-butenal | Acetaldehyde | Acetone | Acrolein | Formaldehyde | Free Radicals | methylethyl ketone | Nicotine | propionaldehyde Details
16. Goniewicz ML, et al. (2014). Our findings are consistent with the idea that substituting tobacco cigarettes with electronic cigarettes may substantially reduce exposure to selected tobacco-specific toxicants. tobacco 2-methylbenzaldehyde | 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone | Acetaldehyde | Acrolein | Cadmium | Formaldehyde | Lead | Nickel | N'-nitrosonornicotine | Toluene | Xylenes Poland e-cigarette, vapor 2-methylbenzaldehyde | 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone | Acetaldehyde | Acrolein | Cadmium | Formaldehyde | Lead | Nickel | N'-nitrosonornicotine | Toluene | Xylenes Details
17. Farsalinos KE, et al. (2015). In this study, electronic cigarette liquids were evaluated for the presence of selected tobacco-derived chemicals. 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone | Acetaldehyde | Formaldehyde | Nicotine | Nitrates | Nitrosamines | N'-nitrosonornicotine | Phenols Greece|United States cigarette | e-cigarette, liquid 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone | Acetaldehyde | Formaldehyde | Nicotine | Nitrates | Nitrosamines | N'-nitrosonornicotine | Phenols Details
18. Reilly SM, et al. (2018). In conclusion, this brief report demonstrates the relative oxidant and nicotine levels produced by the Juul product as well as characterizes the propylene glycol: glycerol and nicotine content in the e-liquid itself. Acetaldehyde | Acetone | Formaldehyde | Nicotine | propionaldehyde United States e-cigarette, liquid Acetaldehyde | Acetone | Formaldehyde | Nicotine | propionaldehyde Details
19. Tayyarah R, et al. (2014). The purpose of this study was to determine content and delivery of e-cigarette ingredients and to compare e-cigarette aerosol to conventional cigarettes with respect to select harmful and potentially harmful constituents for which conventional cigarette smoke is routinely tested. tobacco Acetaldehyde | Acrolein | Carbon Monoxide | Particulate Matter | Phenol | Phenols | Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons | propionaldehyde | Volatile Organic Compounds United States air | e-cigarette, vapor Acetaldehyde | Acrolein | Carbon Monoxide | Nicotine | Phenol | Phenols | Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons | propionaldehyde | Volatile Organic Compounds Details
20. Uchiyama S, et al. (2013). In this study, we determined the concentration of various carbonyl compounds generated from a total of 363 E-cigarettes (13 brands). tobacco Acetaldehyde | Acrolein | Formaldehyde | Glyoxal | propionaldehyde | Pyruvaldehyde Japan e-cigarette, vapor Acetaldehyde | Acrolein | Formaldehyde | Glyoxal | propionaldehyde | Pyruvaldehyde Details
21. DeJarnett N, et al. (2014). Louisville Healthy Heart Study Regardless of its source, acrolein exposure is associated with platelet activation and suppression of circulating angiogenic cell levels, as well as increased cardiovascular disease risk. Acrolein Study subjects United States urine S-(3-hydroxypropyl)cysteine N-acetate Details Cardiovascular Diseases | blood vessel endothelial cell migration | platelet activation
22. Logue JM, et al. (2012). The approach demonstrated in this study may be used to assess regional and national initiatives that affect indoor air quality at the population level. Cumulative health impacts from inhalation in U.S. residences of the indoor air pollutants assessed in this study are estimated at 400-1,100 disability-adjusted life years lost annually per 100,000 persons. Air Pollutants United States 1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethane | 1,1,2-trichloroethane | 1,3-butadiene | 2-butenal | 2-ethoxyethanol | 2-ethylhexanol | 2-phenylphenol | 2-xylene | 4-dichlorobenzene | Acetaldehyde | Acrolein | Acrylonitrile | Ammonia | Arsenic | Atrazine | Benzaldehydes | Benzene | Benzo(a)pyrene | benzyl chloride | Beryllium | bromodichloromethane | bromoform | Cadmium | Carbon Disulfide | Carbon Monoxide | Carbon Tetrachloride | chlorobenzene | chlorodibromomethane | Chloroform | Chromium | cumene | Cyclohexane | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | dioctyl adipate | Ethanol | ethylbenzene | Ethyl Chloride | Ethylene Dibromide | ethylene dichloride | Formaldehyde | hexachlorobutadiene | Manganese | Mercury | methyl cellosolve | Methyl Chloride | Methylene Chloride | methylethyl ketone | methyl isobutyl ketone | Methylmethacrylate | methyl tert-butyl ether | naphthalene | n-butoxyethanol | Nitrogen Dioxide | Ozone | Particulate Matter | Pentachlorophenol | Styrene | Sulfur Dioxide | Tetrachloroethylene | tetrahydrofuran | Toluene | Trichloroethylene | Vinyl Chloride | vinylidene chloride | Xylenes Details
23. Ferreira AM, et al. (2014). We evaluated the indoor air quality in schools in Coimbra (Portugal), and found a statistically significant association between lack of concentration in the children and exposure to high levels of carbon dioxide. Air Pollutants Children Portugal air, indoor Carbon Dioxide | Carbon Monoxide | Formaldehyde | Ozone | Particulate Matter | Sulfur Dioxide | Volatile Organic Compounds Details cognition
24. Kheirbek I, et al. (2012). Traffic and point source emissions cause substantial variation in street-level exposures to common toxic volatile organic compounds, such as benzene and formaldehyde, in New York City. Air Pollutants Study subjects United States air, outdoor Benzene | Benzene Derivatives | Formaldehyde Details
25. Kalkbrenner AE, et al. (2010). Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network (ADDM) Our screening design was limited by exposure misclassification of air pollutants and the use of an alternate developmental disorder as the control group, both of which may have biased results toward the null. Despite these limitations, methylene chloride, quinoline, and styrene emerged (based on this analysis and prior epidemiologic evidence) as candidates that warrant further investigation for a possible role in autism etiology. Air Pollutants United States air 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane | 1,3-butadiene | 1,3-dichloro-1-propene | Acetaldehyde | Acrolein | Acrylonitrile | Arsenicals | Benzene | Beryllium | Cadmium Compounds | Carbon Tetrachloride | Chloroform | Chromium Compounds | Coke | ethylbenzene | Ethylene Dibromide | ethylene dichloride | Ethylene Oxide | Formaldehyde | Hexachlorobenzene | Hexanes | hydrazine | Lead | Manganese Compounds | Mercury Compounds | Methylene Chloride | methyl tert-butyl ether | Nickel | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons | propionaldehyde | propylene dichloride | quinoline | Styrene | Tetrachloroethylene | Toluene | Trichloroethylene | Vehicle Emissions | Vinyl Chloride | Xylenes Details Autism Spectrum Disorder
26. Sax SN, et al. (2006). Toxics Exposure Assessment Columbia-Harvard (TEACH) In this study of inner-city teenagers living in New York City and Los Angeles, most volatile organic compounds had median upper-bound lifetime cancer risks that exceeded the US EPA benchmark and were generally greater than modeled estimates, more so for compounds with predominant indoor sources; chromium, nickel, and arsenic had median personal cancer risks above the benchmark with exposures largely from outdoors and other microenvironments; the U.S. EPA-modeled concentrations tended to overestimate personal cancer risks for beryllium and chromium but underestimate risks for nickel and arsenic. Air Pollutants | Arsenic | Chromium | Elements | Nickel | Volatile Organic Compounds Children United States air, indoor | air, outdoor | air, personal 1,3-butadiene | 4-dichlorobenzene | Acetaldehyde | Arsenic | Benzene | Beryllium | Cadmium | Carbon Tetrachloride | Chloroform | Chromium | ethylbenzene | Formaldehyde | Lead | Methylene Chloride | methyl tert-butyl ether | Nickel | Styrene | Tetrachloroethylene | Trichloroethylene Details Neoplasms
27. Cakmak S, et al. (2014). Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) To investigate the association between volatile organic compounds measured in residential indoor air and lung function in the Canadian population Cycle 2 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey - a population based cross-sectional survey designed to be representative of the Canadian population - was carried out between 2009 and 2011. alpha-pinene | Benzene | caprylic aldehyde | decanaldehyde | Furaldehyde | isoprene | naphthalene | n-hexanal | nonanal | Styrene Children | Study subjects Canada air alpha-pinene | Benzene | caprylic aldehyde | decanaldehyde | Furaldehyde | isoprene | naphthalene | n-hexanal | nonanal | Styrene Details regulation of respiratory gaseous exchange
28. Ma L, et al. (2016). We reveal that specific histone modifications are associated with arsenic exposure and oxidative damage, and persistent dysregulation of these histone modifications could be a potential biomarker that evaluates the burden of arsenic exposure and predicts the adverse biological effects. Arsenic Study subjects China hair | lymphocyte | plasma | urine 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine | Arsenic | Malondialdehyde Details Arsenic Poisoning | positive regulation of histone H3-K14 acetylation | positive regulation of histone H3-K18 acetylation | positive regulation of histone H3-K36 trimethylation | positive regulation of histone H3-K9 dimethylation
29. Yan L, et al. (2002). Both exposure to asbestos and GSTM1 deficiency were related to lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde levels) in workers, but the role of the former may be more important than that of the latter. genetics Asbestos Subjects with gene influence:GSTM1 | Workers China plasma Malondialdehyde Details
30. Kosmider L, et al. (2016). While e-cigarettes seem to be a promising harm reduction tool for smokers, findings indicate that using these products could result in repeated inhalation of benzaldehyde, with long-term users risking regular exposure to the substance. benzaldehyde Study subjects Poland|United States e-cigarette benzaldehyde Details
31. Pankow JF, et al. (2017). We investigated formation of benzene (an important human carcinogen) from e-cigarette fluids containing propylene glycol (PG), glycerol (GL), benzoic acid, the flavor chemical benzaldehyde, and nicotine. benzaldehyde | Benzene | Benzoic Acid | Glycerol | Nicotine | Propylene Glycol | Tobacco Smoke Pollution United States e-cigarette, liquid | e-cigarette, vapor Benzene | Benzoic Acid | Nicotine | Particulate Matter Details Neoplasms
32. Macey GP, et al. (2014). Levels of eight volatile chemicals exceeded federal guidelines under several operational circumstances. Benzene, formaldehyde, and hydrogen sulfide were the most common compounds to exceed acute and other health-based risk levels. Benzene | ethylbenzene | Formaldehyde | Hydrogen Sulfide | n-hexane | Toluene | Xylenes United States air Benzene | ethylbenzene | Formaldehyde | Hydrogen Sulfide | n-hexane | Toluene | Xylenes Details
33. Wang W, et al. (2016). In this study, the occurrence of six synthetic phenolic antioxidants including butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and deriviatives was examined in 63 dental sealant products available in the US (with some manufactured in foreign countries); the estimated daily intake of BHT from dental sealants was several orders of magnitude lower than the current acceptable daily intake. Butylated Hydroxyanisole | Butylated Hydroxytoluene Children | Study subjects Greece|Korea, Republic of|
Liechtenstein|United States
dental sealant 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-benzoquinone | 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-one | 2-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole | 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde | 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid | Butylated Hydroxytoluene Details
34. Rodil R, et al. (2010). We determined the concentrations of two synthetic phenolic antioxidants and their main metabolites in water, and show that BHT and BHT-Q are the highest in waste water and that the metabolites BHT-CHO and BHT-COOH are the most resistant to water treatment in sewage and river samples. Butylated Hydroxyanisole | Butylated Hydroxytoluene | Waste Water Spain water, river | water, waste 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-benzoquinone | 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-one | 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde | 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid | Butylated Hydroxyanisole | Butylated Hydroxytoluene Details
35. Zhang R, et al. (2018). Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is widely used in the food and cosmetic industry as an additive and preservative; BHT, however, is unstable in the environment and can be transformed through oxidation; we developed an analytical method to simultaneously determine BHT and its four transformation products in indoor dust and sediment samples. Butylated Hydroxytoluene | Dust China dust, house | sediment 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-benzoquinone | 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-one | 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde | 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid | Butylated Hydroxytoluene Details
36. Yeatts KB, et al. (2012). This study provides new information regarding potential health risks from pollutants commonly found in indoor environments in the United Arab Emirates and other countries. Carbon Monoxide | Formaldehyde | Hydrogen Sulfide | Nitrogen Dioxide | Particulate Matter | Sulfur Dioxide | Tobacco Smoke Pollution Study subjects United Arab Emirates air Carbon Monoxide | Formaldehyde | Hydrogen Sulfide | Nitrogen Dioxide | Particulate Matter | Sulfur Dioxide | Tobacco Smoke Pollution Details Asthma | Respiratory Sounds
37. Yuan WM, et al. (2016). On the basis of the pre-existing local nasal mucosal lesions, excessive chromic acid mist in the school's surrounding areas and formaldehyde in the classrooms were considered to have acutely irritated the nasal mucosa, causing epistaxis. Chromium | Formaldehyde | Hydrochloric Acid | sulfuric acid Children China air Chromium | Formaldehyde | Hydrochloric Acid | sulfuric acid Details Epistaxis
38. Lin VY, et al. (2018). Here, we sought to determine if e-cigs are as safe as the general populace perceives, in regards to the deleterious effects of smoking on the ion transport environment of airway epithelia that are associated with chronic bronchitis. tobacco Citric Acid | Glycerol | Nicotine United States e-cigarette, vapor Acrolein Details Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive | active ion transmembrane transporter activity
39. Hahn S, et al. (2010). Exposure to biocides from household products may contribute to induction of sensitization in the population. Disinfectants Germany 1,2-benzisothiazoline-3-one | 2-Propanol | Benzalkonium Compounds | Benzoates | bronopol | chloroacetamide | Chlorpyrifos | d,d-T80-prallethrin | Dichlorvos | Formaldehyde | Glutaral | Hydrogen Peroxide | phenoxyethanol | phoxim | picaridin | Sodium Hypochlorite | Thiazoles | trichloroisocyanuric acid | Triclosan | troclosene Details
40. Kang S, et al. (2013). The present study was designed to determine urinary paraben levels among pregnant women and their matching newborn infants, and the association between paraben levels and stress markers; methylparaben was detected as the highest and butylparaben as the lowest in both pregnant women and their infants; levels of ethyl paraben were 4-9 fold higher than found in pregnant women of other countries. body mass index ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | methylparaben | Parabens Infants or newborns | Pregnant females Korea, Republic of urine 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine | butylparaben | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | Malondialdehyde | methylparaben | propylparaben Details response to stress
41. Vaughan TL, et al. (2000). These results support the hypothesis that occupational exposure to formaldehyde, but not wood dust, increases risk of nasopharyngeal cancer. tobacco Formaldehyde Subjects with disease:Carcinoma, Squamous Cell | Controls for disease:Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma | Subjects with disease:Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma | Study subjects United States Formaldehyde Details Carcinoma, Squamous Cell
42. Jia X, et al. (2014). In the present study, we aimed to examine the distribution of major lymphocyte subpopulations (T cells, B cells, and NK cells) in the peripheral blood of formaldehyde-exposed and unexposed workers. Formaldehyde | formic acid Workers China air Formaldehyde Details B cell proliferation | interferon-gamma secretion | interleukin-10 secretion | interleukin-4 secretion | interleukin-8 secretion | natural killer cell proliferation | tumor necrosis factor secretion
43. Kosmider L, et al. (2014). Our findings show that vapors generated from various commercial and reference solutions expose electronic cigarette users to toxic carbonyls, including the carcinogens formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. tobacco Glycerol | Propylene Glycol Poland e-cigarette, vapor 2-butenal | 3-methylbenzaldehyde | Acetaldehyde | Acetone | benzaldehyde | butyraldehyde | Formaldehyde | isovalerylaldehyde Details
44. Kaur G, et al. (2018). This study demonstrated significantly elevated relative risk of lower antioxidant defense mechanisms (glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) in an occupationally pesticide-exposed group from the Bathinda district of Punjab (India). Herbicides | Pesticides Workers India blood ACHE | alachlor | Atrazine | BCHE | butachlor | CAT | Chlorpyrifos | Dichlorvos | ethoprophos | Glutathione | GPX1 | GSR | Herbicides | Malondialdehyde | metolachlor | Pesticides Details catalase activity | glutathione-disulfide reductase activity | glutathione peroxidase activity | negative regulation of catalase activity | negative regulation of glutathione peroxidase activity | negative regulation of superoxide dismutase activity | superoxide dismutase activity
45. Zepeda-Arce R, et al. (2017). Our results suggest an important role of antioxidant enzymes for the protection of DNA damage caused by occupational exposure to pesticides. Pesticides Study subjects | Workers Mexico blood | plasma | serum ACHE | BCHE | CAT | GPX1 | GSR | Malondialdehyde Details glutathione peroxidase activity | negative regulation of catalase activity | negative regulation of superoxide dismutase activity
46. Yoon HS, et al. (2012). Using the urinary biomarkers 1-hydroxypyrene-glucuronide (1-OHPG), 2-naphthol, and malondialdehyde (MDA), we evaluated seasonal and regional variations in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and oxidative stress among Korean adults and children. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons | Tobacco Smoke Pollution Children | Study subjects Korea, Republic of urine 1-hydroxypyrene-glucuronide | 2-naphthol | Malondialdehyde Details
47. Madison RE, et al. (1991). We measured immunologic biomarkers associated with an acute exposure to exothermic byproducts of a ureaformaldehyde spill and found a statistically significant difference for percent and absolute numbers of CD26 T-cells and autoantibodies to formaldehyde-human serum albumin conjugate. urea formaldehyde foam Study subjects United States air, ambient | snow Formaldehyde Details Conjunctivitis | Cough | Diarrhea | Dizziness | Dyspnea | Epistaxis | Exanthema | Fatigue | Headache | Nausea | Pharyngitis | immunoglobulin production involved in immunoglobulin mediated immune response | T cell differentiation
48. Pross HF, et al. (1987). These data indicate that long-term exposure to urea-formaldehyde foam insulation off-products in the home apparently had no effect on the immunologic parameters studied, but short-term exposure resulted in minor immunologic changes in this subject population. urea formaldehyde foam Subjects with disease:Asthma Canada Details eosinophil differentiation | natural killer cell activation involved in immune response | T cell differentiation
49. Chen WH, et al. (2006). A chemical worker working with urea-formaldehyde resin hazard for 20 years suffered cerebral ischemia in association with an increase of anticardiolipin antibody and a prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time. urea formaldehyde foam Workers Taiwan, Province of China Details Brain Ischemia | Thrombosis | humoral immune response mediated by circulating immunoglobulin | immunoglobulin production involved in immunoglobulin mediated immune response
50. Thun MJ, et al. (1982). Families exposed to urea-formaldehyde foam insulation reported no increase in the overall incidence of symptoms, but did report a significant excess of two specific symptoms, 'burning skin' and 'wheezing or difficulty breathing'. urea formaldehyde foam Study subjects United States Details Pain | Respiratory Sounds | Skin Abnormalities
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