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Chemical Alkaloids

These are exposure studies associated with the chemical and all of its children.

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1–38 of 38 results.
  Reference Associated Study Title Author's Summary Study Factors Stressor Receptors Country Medium Exposure Marker Measurements Outcome
1. Aquilina NJ, et al. (2010). Measurement and Modelling of Air Toxic Concentrations for Health Effect Studies Project (MATCH) The objective of this study was to analyse environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites in urine samples of non-occupationally exposed non-smoker adult subjects and to establish relationships between airborne exposures and urinary concentrations in order to assess the suitability of the studied metabolites as biomarkers of PAH and ETS, study the use of 3-ethenypyridine as ETS tracer, and link ETS scenarios with exposures to carcinogenic PAH and volatile organic compounds. tobacco 1,12-benzoperylene | 1,2,5,6-dibenzanthracene | 1,3-butadiene | 1-hydroxyphenanthrene | 1-hydroxypyrene | 2-hydroxyfluorene | 2-naphthol | 3-vinylpyridine | acenaphthene | acenaphthylene | anthracene | benz(a)anthracene | Benzo(a)pyrene | benzo(b)fluoranthene | benzo(k)fluoranthene | chrysene | coronene | fluoranthene | fluorene | hydroxycotinine | indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene | naphthalene | Nicotine | phenanthrene | Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons | pyrene Study subjects United Kingdom urine 1,12-benzoperylene | 1,2,5,6-dibenzanthracene | 1,3-butadiene | 1-hydroxyphenanthrene | 1-hydroxypyrene | 2-hydroxyfluorene | 2-naphthol | 3-vinylpyridine | acenaphthene | acenaphthylene | anthracene | benz(a)anthracene | Benzo(a)pyrene | benzo(b)fluoranthene | benzo(k)fluoranthene | chrysene | coronene | fluoranthene | fluorene | hydroxycotinine | indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene | naphthalene | Nicotine | phenanthrene | Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons | pyrene Details
2. Aszyk J, et al. (2017). Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of 42 flavouring compounds and nicotine in liquids for e-cigarettes. 2,5-dimethylpyrazine | 2,6-lutidine | 2-acetylpyrrole | 5-methyl-2-furfural | benzyl acetate | cyclotene | diethyl succinate | ethyl acetoacetate | ethyl lactate | ethyl maltol | ethyl vanillin | furaneol | gamma-valerolactone | linalool | maltol | Menthol | menthone | methyl cinnamate | methylheptenone | methyl salicylate | Nicotine | pyridine | tetramethylpyrazine | vanillin Poland e-cigarette 2,5-dimethylpyrazine | 2,6-lutidine | 2-acetylpyrrole | 5-methyl-2-furfural | benzyl acetate | cyclotene | diethyl succinate | ethyl acetoacetate | ethyl lactate | ethyl maltol | ethyl vanillin | furaneol | gamma-valerolactone | linalool | maltol | Menthol | menthone | methyl cinnamate | methylheptenone | methyl salicylate | Nicotine | pyridine | tetramethylpyrazine | vanillin Details
3. Farsalinos KE, et al. (2015). In this study, electronic cigarette liquids were evaluated for the presence of selected tobacco-derived chemicals. 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone | Acetaldehyde | Formaldehyde | Nicotine | Nitrates | Nitrosamines | N'-nitrosonornicotine | Phenols Greece|United States cigarette | e-cigarette, liquid 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone | Acetaldehyde | Formaldehyde | Nicotine | Nitrates | Nitrosamines | N'-nitrosonornicotine | Phenols Details
4. Tayyarah R, et al. (2014). The purpose of this study was to determine content and delivery of e-cigarette ingredients and to compare e-cigarette aerosol to conventional cigarettes with respect to select harmful and potentially harmful constituents for which conventional cigarette smoke is routinely tested. tobacco Acetaldehyde | Acrolein | Carbon Monoxide | Particulate Matter | Phenol | Phenols | Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons | propionaldehyde | Volatile Organic Compounds United States air | e-cigarette, vapor Acetaldehyde | Acrolein | Carbon Monoxide | Nicotine | Phenol | Phenols | Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons | propionaldehyde | Volatile Organic Compounds Details
5. Campbell RC, et al. (2014). The aim of this study was to determine whether there are predictable relationships among major arsenic species in tobacco that could be useful for risk assessment; the dominance of inorganic arsenic species among those components analysed is a marked feature of the diverse range of tobaccos selected for study. tobacco Arsenicals | Nicotine | tobacco tar Bulgaria|China|
United Kingdom|United States
tobacco Arsenicals | Cacodylic Acid | monomethylarsonic acid | Nicotine | tobacco tar Details
6. Ferrari M, et al. (2015). The short-term use of the specific brand of nicotine-free e-cigarette assessed in this study had no immediate adverse effects on non-smokers and only small effects on forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced expiratory flow 25% in smokers. tobacco Benzoic Acid | ethyl carbonate | Nicotine | Propylene Glycol | quinoline | Tobacco Smoke Pollution Study subjects Italy Details respiratory gaseous exchange
7. Wesselink AK, et al. (2016). Pregnancy Study Online (PRESTO) Total caffeine intake among males, but not females, was associated with fecundability, although the association was not monotonic; with respect to individual beverages, caffeinated black tea was associated with slight reductions among females, and caffeinated soda and energy drink were associated with reduced fecundability among males. diet | sex Caffeine Study subjects Canada|United States beverage, caffeinated | tea, black Caffeine Details female pregnancy
8. Go YM, et al. (2015). We examined quantification strategies to enhance the usefulness of high-resolution metabolomics data for cumulative exposome research; the results provide a simple reference standardization protocol in which individual chemical concentrations are estimated by comparison to a concurrently analyzed, pooled reference sample with known chemical concentrations. Caffeine | Chlorobenzoates | chlorsulfuron | Cotinine | Fyrol PCF | hippuric acid | meobal | octylphenol | pirimicarb | Styrene Study subjects United States plasma Caffeine | Chlorobenzoates | chlorsulfuron | Cotinine | Fyrol PCF | hippuric acid | meobal | octylphenol | pirimicarb | Styrene Details
9. Yang H, et al. (2015). Male Reproductive Health in Chongqing College students (MARHCS) The primary objectives of the MARHCS study are to investigate the associations of male reproductive health in young adults with sociopsychobehavioral factors, as well as changes of environmental exposure due to the relocation from rural campus (in University Town) to metro-campus (in central downtown). diet | tobacco Caffeine | Tobacco Smoke Pollution Study subjects China semen Details spermatogenesis | sperm motility
10. No authors listed. (1996). This report presents the findings that in 1994 at least 0.5% of infants in Georgia (US) had had perinatal exposure to cocaine. Cocaine Infants or newborns United States blood benzoylecgonine Details
11. Braun JM, et al. (2010). Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) We observed a dose-dependent relationship between the number of serum cotinine measurements consistent with secondhand or active tobacco smoke exposure during the latter two-thirds of pregnancy and meconium tobacco smoke metabolite concentrations. Cotinine | Tobacco Smoke Pollution Infants or newborns | Pregnant females United States meconium | serum Cotinine | Nicotine Details Birth Weight
12. Antoniewicz L, et al. (2016). In healthy volunteers, ten puffs of e-cigarette vapor inhalation caused an increase in endothelial progenitor cells. Ethanol | Glycerol | Nicotine | Propylene Glycol | Tobacco Smoke Pollution Study subjects Sweden breath | plasma Cotinine | Nitric Oxide Details stem cell population maintenance
13. Valentine GW, et al. (2016). Brief use of a widely available type of e-cigarette containing an e-liquid purchased from an Internet vendor can negatively impact psychomotor performance and in some instances, produce detectable levels of a urine alcohol metabolite. Ethanol | Nicotine Study subjects United States urine ethyl glucuronide Details psychomotor behavior
14. Kataria A, et al. (2015). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Perfluoroalkyl acids are associated with a reduction in kidney function and increased uric acid levels in otherwise healthy adolescents. Fluorocarbons Children United States serum perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | Uric Acid Details glomerular filtration
15. Kasperczyk S, et al. (2014). We examined the effects of N-acetylcysteine administration on the non-enzymatic defense systems (e.g., uric acid, albumin, bilirubin and alpha-tocopherol) in male workers exposed to lead, over a 12 week study period. Lead Workers Poland blood ALB | alpha-Tocopherol | Bilirubin | Lead | Lipid Peroxides | Uric Acid | zinc protoporphyrin Details
16. Etter JF. (2014). In summary, this and other studies show that vapers can obtain large amounts of nicotine from e-cigarettes, similar to levels observed in smokers and higher than levels usually observed in users of nicotine medications. tobacco Nicotine Study subjects France|Switzerland|
United States
saliva Cotinine Details
17. Goniewicz ML, et al. (2015). This study indicates that there is a risk for thirdhand exposure to nicotine from e-cigarettes. Nicotine United States floor Nicotine Details
18. Etter JF, et al. (2011). We conclude that cotinine levels in electronic nicotine delivery systems users were similar to levels observed, in previous reports, in smokers and higher than levels usually observed in nicotine replacement therapy users. tobacco Nicotine Study subjects Switzerland saliva Cotinine Details
19. Harte CB, et al. (2008). Isolated nicotine can significantly attenuate physiological sexual arousal in healthy nonsmoking men. tobacco Nicotine Study subjects United States Nicotine Details Erectile Dysfunction | vasoconstriction
20. Kleinjan M, et al. (2012). International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Nicotine dependence profiles are predicted by interactions between personal and environmental factors. age Nicotine Children Netherlands Nicotine Details Tobacco Use Disorder
21. Goniewicz ML, et al. (2013). Electronic cigarettes (EC) generate vapor that contains nicotine, but EC brands and models differ in their efficacy and consistency of nicotine vaporization. tobacco Nicotine United Kingdom e-cigarette, liquid | e-cigarette, vapor Nicotine Details
22. Etter JF, et al. (2013). About half of the e-liquids analyzed in this study contained acceptable levels of nicotine-related impurities, the nicotine content corresponded, in general, to the labels on the bottles and no diethylene glycol was found in a sample of some of the most popular brands of e-liquids. tobacco Nicotine Switzerland e-cigarette, liquid alpha-nicotyrine | Anabasine | anatabine | Cotinine | myosmine | Nicotine | nornicotine Details
23. Dawkins L, et al. (2014). This study aims to explore in experienced users the effect of using an 18 mg/ml nicotine first-generation e-cigarette on blood nicotine, tobacco withdrawal symptoms, and urge to smoke. tobacco Nicotine Study subjects United Kingdom plasma Nicotine Details
24. Dicpinigaitis PV, et al. (2016). A single session of e-cigarette use, approximating nicotine exposure of one tobacco cigarette, induces significant inhibition of cough reflex sensitivity. tobacco Nicotine Study subjects United States Details reflex
25. Bullen C, et al. (2010). This study compared the Ruyan V8 electronic nicotine delivery device containing 16 mg nicotine cartridges to one containing 0 mg cartridges (identical in appearance and in chemistry but lacking nicotine), Nicorette nicotine inhalator and usual cigarettes. We measured change in desire to smoke, withdrawal symptoms, product preferences, serum nicotine levels and adverse events after 1 day's use. tobacco Nicotine Study subjects New Zealand serum Nicotine Details
26. Whitehead T, et al. (2009). Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study (NCCLS) These findings suggest that house-dust nicotine concentrations reflect long-term exposures to cigarette smoke in the home and that they may be less biased surrogates for children's exposures to cigarette smoke than self-reported smoking habits. Nicotine Children United States dust Nicotine Details
27. Goniewicz ML, et al. (2018). Product testing results and participants' high urinary cotinine levels provide physiological evidence for significant nicotine exposure among pod users. tobacco Nicotine Children United States e-cigarette, liquid | e-cigarette, vapor | urine Cotinine | Nicotine Details
28. Vansickel AR, et al. (2013). The purpose of the present study was to characterize the nicotine delivery profile, subjective, and cardiovascular effects of electronic cigarettes (ECs) in experienced ECs users who were using their preferred devices. tobacco Nicotine Study subjects United States plasma Nicotine Details positive regulation of heart rate
29. Leventhal AM, et al. (2016). This study is the first to comprehensively examine differences in psychiatric profiles between four different groups based on typologies of tobacco product use: (1) non-users; (2) e-cigarette only users; (3) conventional cigarette only users; and (4) dual users. tobacco Nicotine | Tobacco Smoke Pollution Children United States Details Anhedonia | Anxiety Disorders | Depressive Disorder, Major | Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder | Panic Disorder
30. Czoli CD, et al. (2018). The current study examined exposure to nicotine and tobacco smoke constituents among dual users in the context of several product switches in a naturalistic setting. tobacco Nicotine | Tobacco Smoke Pollution Study subjects Canada breath | urine 1-hydroxypyrene | 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butan-1-ol | Carbon Monoxide | Cotinine Details
31. Flouris AD, et al. (2013). In this study, we present the first comprehensive and standardized assessment regarding the impact of short term active and passive e-cigarette smoking on cotinine concentration and lung function compared to active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking. tobacco Nicotine | Tobacco Smoke Pollution Study subjects Greece serum Cotinine Details respiratory gaseous exchange
32. Vinnikov D, et al. (2010). In summary, we found levels of exposure to secondhand smoke both in socializing venues and at home to be high in participants in this study conducted in Kyrgyzstan. tobacco Nicotine | Tobacco Smoke Pollution Workers Kyrgyzstan air | hair Nicotine Details Respiration Disorders
33. McConnell R, et al. (2017). Children's Health Study (CHS) Adolescent e-cigarette users had increased rates of chronic bronchitic symptoms. Nicotine | tobacco tar Children United States Details Bronchitis | Cough | Respiratory Sounds | Respiratory Tract Diseases
34. Peters KO, et al. (2017). Center for Childhood Asthma in the Urban Environment (CCAUE) Time spent in non-smoking homes was associated with significantly decreased urine 1-hydroxypyrene-glucuronide (1-OHPG), and secondhand smoke exposures increased these levels; time spent outdoors was associated with increased urinary 1-OHPG concentrations in boys only; our results suggest that secondhand smoke and ambient outdoor air pollution contribute to internal dose of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in inner city children. sex | tobacco Particulate Matter | Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons | Tobacco Smoke Pollution Children United States air, indoor | urine 1-hydroxypyrene-glucuronide | Nicotine | Particulate Matter Details
35. Schreinemachers DM, et al. (2015). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) This study investigated associations between urinary perchlorate and biomarkers of oxidative stress and iron homeostasis, including blood urea nitrogen, lymphocyte counts, serum uric acid, serum iron, and red blood cell counts. perchlorate Study subjects United States serum | urine Iron | perchlorate | Uric Acid Details erythrocyte homeostasis | iron ion homeostasis | lymphocyte homeostasis
36. Shankar A, et al. (2011). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Our results demonstrate that elevated levels of perfluoroalkyl chemicals are associated with hyperuricemia even at low perfluoroalkyl chemical exposure levels as seen in a representative, multiethnic sample of US adults. perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Study subjects United States serum Uric Acid Details Hyperuricemia
37. Steenland K, et al. (2010). C8 Health Project (C8HP) Higher serum levels of perfluorooctanoic acid were associated with a higher prevalence of hyperuricemia, but the limitations of cross-sectional data and the possibility of noncausal mechanisms prohibit conclusions regarding causality. perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Study subjects United States serum perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | Uric Acid Details Hyperuricemia
38. Wipfli H, et al. (2008). Our results indicate that women and children living with smokers are at increased risk of premature death and disease from exposure to secondhand smoke. Tobacco Smoke Pollution Children | Study subjects Argentina|Armenia|
Brazil|Cambodia|
China|Dominican Republic|
Egypt|Georgia|
Guatemala|Hong Kong|
India|Indonesia|
Latvia|Malaysia|
Mexico|Nepal|
Panama|Peru|
Philippines|Poland|
Romania|Russian Federation|
Syrian Arab Republic|Taiwan, Province of China|
Thailand|Turkey|
Ukraine|Uruguay|
Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of|Vietnam
air | hair Nicotine Details
1–38 of 38 results.