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Chemical Amides

These are exposure studies associated with the chemical and all of its children.

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  Reference Associated Study Title Author's Summary Study Factors Stressor Receptors Country Medium Exposure Marker Measurements Outcome
1. Malek AM, et al. (2015). A potential association was found for exposure to ambient air concentrations of suspected neurotoxicant hazardous air pollutants, specifically aromatic solvents, among place of residence in 2002 and 1999 and risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. 1,1,1-trichloroethane | 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane | 2,4-dinitrotoluene | Acrylamide | allyl chloride | Arsenicals | Benzene | Cadmium Compounds | Carbon Disulfide | Carbon Tetrachloride | Chloroform | Cresols | Cyanides | ethylbenzene | Ethylene Dibromide | ethylene dichloride | Ethylene Oxide | Hexachlorobenzene | hexachloroethane | Hexanes | hydrazine | Lead | Manganese Compounds | Mercury Compounds | Methyl Chloride | Methylene Chloride | Nickel | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | Selenium Compounds | Styrene | Tetrachloroethylene | Toluene | Trichloroethylene | Vinyl Chloride | Xylenes Controls for disease:Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis | Subjects with disease:Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis United States 1,1,1-trichloroethane | 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane | 2,4-dinitrotoluene | Acrylamide | allyl chloride | Arsenicals | Benzene | Cadmium Compounds | Carbon Disulfide | Carbon Tetrachloride | Chloroform | Cresols | Cyanides | ethylbenzene | Ethylene Dibromide | ethylene dichloride | Ethylene Oxide | Hexachlorobenzene | hexachloroethane | Hexanes | hydrazine | Lead | Manganese Compounds | Mercury Compounds | Methyl Chloride | Methylene Chloride | Nickel | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | Selenium Compounds | Styrene | Tetrachloroethylene | Toluene | Trichloroethylene | Vinyl Chloride | Xylenes Details Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
2. Dodson RE, et al. (2015). California Household Exposure Study (CAHES) We collected house dust and indoor air samples in 49 California homes and analyzed for 76 semivolatile organic compounds-phthalates, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and pesticides. 1,2,5,6-dibenzanthracene | 1-methylphenanthrene | 1-nitropyrene | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,5,2',5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl | 2-methylphenanthrene | 2-phenylphenol | 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene | 4-nitrotoluene | acenaphthene | acenaphthylene | alachlor | Aldrin | anthracene | Atrazine | bendiocarb | benz(a)anthracene | Benzo(a)pyrene | benzo(b)fluoranthene | benzo(j)fluoranthene | benzo(k)fluoranthene | benzothiophene | butylbenzyl phthalate | Carbaryl | Carbofuran | Chlordan | Chlorpyrifos | chrysene | cyanazine | cypermethrin | DDT | Diazinon | dibenzo(a,e)pyrene | dibenzothiophene | Dibutyl Phthalate | Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | Dicofol | dicyclohexyl phthalate | Dieldrin | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | diethyl phthalate | diisobutyl phthalate | di-n-hexyl phthalate | di-n-octyl phthalate | di-n-pentyl phthalate | di-n-propylphthalate | dioctyl adipate | Endrin | fluoranthene | fluorene | Heptachlor | indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene | Lindane | Malathion | Methoxychlor | Methyl Parathion | metolachlor | nitrofen | Parathion | pentabromodiphenyl ether | Permethrin | phenanthrene | Phenanthrenes | Piperonyl Butoxide | prometone | Propoxur | pyrene | Simazine | tetrachloroisophthalonitrile | Trifluralin | tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate United States dust 1,2,5,6-dibenzanthracene | 1-methylphenanthrene | 1-nitropyrene | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,5,2',5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl | 2-methylphenanthrene | 2-phenylphenol | 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene | 4-nitrotoluene | acenaphthene | acenaphthylene | alachlor | Aldrin | anthracene | Atrazine | bendiocarb | benz(a)anthracene | Benzo(a)pyrene | benzo(b)fluoranthene | benzo(j)fluoranthene | benzo(k)fluoranthene | benzothiophene | butylbenzyl phthalate | Carbaryl | Carbofuran | Chlordan | Chlorpyrifos | chrysene | cyanazine | cypermethrin | DDT | Diazinon | dibenzo(a,e)pyrene | dibenzothiophene | Dibutyl Phthalate | Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | Dicofol | dicyclohexyl phthalate | Dieldrin | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | diethyl phthalate | diisobutyl phthalate | di-n-hexyl phthalate | di-n-octyl phthalate | di-n-pentyl phthalate | di-n-propylphthalate | dioctyl adipate | Endrin | fluoranthene | fluorene | Heptachlor | indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene | Lindane | Malathion | Methoxychlor | Methyl Parathion | metolachlor | nitrofen | Parathion | pentabromodiphenyl ether | Permethrin | phenanthrene | Phenanthrenes | Piperonyl Butoxide | prometone | Propoxur | pyrene | Simazine | tetrachloroisophthalonitrile | Trifluralin | tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate Details
3. Rull RP, et al. (2006). Data on two case-control study populations of infants with neural tube defects (NTDs) and nonmalformed controls delivered in California between 1987 and 1991 were pooled to investigate whether maternal residential proximity to applications of specific pesticides or physicochemical groups of pesticides during early gestation increases the risk of these malformations. 1,3-dichloro-1-propene | Amides | Benomyl | Benzimidazoles | Captan | Chlorpyrifos | devrinol | Dimethoate | Disulfoton | Methomyl | methyl carbamate | methyl demeton | Naled | Organophosphorus Compounds | vendex Infants or newborns United States 1,3-dichloro-1-propene | Amides | Benomyl | Benzimidazoles | Captan | Chlorpyrifos | devrinol | Dimethoate | Disulfoton | Methomyl | methyl carbamate | methyl demeton | Naled | Organophosphorus Compounds | vendex Details Anencephaly | Neural Tube Defects | Spinal Dysraphism
4. Robledo CA, et al. (2015). Longitudinal Investigation of Fertility and the Environment Study (LIFE) Preconceptional maternal and paternal concentrations of several persistent organic pollutants were associated with statistically significant differences in birth size among offspring. 2,2',3,3',4,4',5-heptachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',3,5,5',6-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabrominated diphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,4,2',3',4'-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,4,4'5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,4',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,4'-trichlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',5'-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,5,2',5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl | beta-hexachlorocyclohexane | DDT | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | Fluorocarbons | Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers | Hexachlorobenzene | hexadecafluoro-nonanoic acid | Lindane | Mirex | N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamido acetate | nonachlor | o,p'-DDT | oxychlordane | PBB 153 | PCB 180 | pentabromodiphenyl ether | perfluorodecanoic acid | perfluorooctanesulfonamide | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | tribromodiphenyl ether 28 Infants or newborns | Mothers | Study subjects United States serum 2,2',3,3',4,4',5-heptachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',3,5,5',6-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabrominated diphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,4,2',3',4'-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,4,4'5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,4',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,4'-trichlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',5'-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,5,2',5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl | beta-hexachlorocyclohexane | DDT | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | Fluorocarbons | Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers | Hexachlorobenzene | hexadecafluoro-nonanoic acid | Lindane | Mirex | N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamido acetate | nonachlor | o,p'-DDT | oxychlordane | PBB 153 | PCB 180 | pentabromodiphenyl ether | perfluorodecanoic acid | perfluorooctanesulfonamide | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | tribromodiphenyl ether 28 Details Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects | developmental growth | head development
5. Arcury TA, et al. (2007). In this investigation we documented the pesticide urinary metabolite levels of farmworker children in North Carolina, determined the number of different metabolites detected for each child, and delineated risk factors associated with the number of metabolites. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 3-phenoxybenzoic acid | acetochlor | Atrazine | Chlorpyrifos | Coumaphos | DEET | Diazinon | isazophos | Malathion | metolachlor | Parathion | pirimiphos methyl Children United States urine 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 3-phenoxybenzoic acid | acetochlor | Atrazine | Chlorpyrifos | Coumaphos | DEET | Diazinon | isazophos | Malathion | metolachlor | Parathion | pirimiphos methyl Details
6. Bakke B, et al. (2009). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) We measured the exposure to atrazine and selected non-persistent pesticides among corn farmers during a growing season; urinary atrazine mercapturate levels in farmers were largely driven by recent application of atrazine; therefore, the amount of atrazine applied is likely to provide valid surrogates of atrazine exposure in epidemiologic studies. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | acetochlor | Atrazine | Chlorpyrifos | Coumaphos | Diazinon | Malathion | Methyl Parathion | metolachlor | pirimiphos methyl | Pyrethrins Workers United States urine 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol | 3-phenoxybenzoic acid | acetochlor mercapturate | atrazine mercapturate | chlorferron | Diazinon | Malathion | Methyl Parathion | metolachlor | pirimiphos methyl Details
7. Goldner WS, et al. (2010). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) These data support a role of organochlorines, in addition to fungicides, in the etiology of thyroid disease among female spouses enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | alachlor | Aldrin | Atrazine | Benomyl | butylate | Captan | Carbaryl | Carbon Disulfide | Carbon Tetrachloride | Chlordan | chlorimuron ethyl | Chlorpyrifos | cyanazine | DDT | Diazinon | Dicamba | Dichlorvos | EPTC | Fonofos | Fungicides, Industrial | glyphosate | Heptachlor | Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated | imazethapyr | Insecticides | Lindane | Malathion | mancozeb | Maneb | metalaxyl | methyl bromide | metolachlor | metribuzin | Paraquat | Parathion | pendimethalin | Petroleum | terbufos | tetrachloroisophthalonitrile | Trifluralin Study subjects United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Hyperthyroidism | Hypothyroidism
8. Goldner WS, et al. (2013). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) We found statistically significant associations between specific herbicides and insecticides and hypothyroid disease in male pesticide applicators. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | alachlor | Aldrin | butylate | Carbofuran | Chlordan | DDT | Diazinon | Dicamba | fenoprop | Heptachlor | Lindane | Malathion | metalaxyl | Parathion | Petroleum | Toxaphene Workers United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Hyperthyroidism | Hypothyroidism
9. Waggoner JK, et al. (2013). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) In this large cohort of male farmers, pesticide use, in addition to farm machinery use, was associated with fatal injury. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | alachlor | butylate | Carbon Disulfide | Carbon Tetrachloride | cyanazine | metribuzin | Paraquat | Ziram Workers United States Details Death
10. Carreón T, et al. (2005). Upper Midwest Health Study (UMHS) Results show that exposure to pesticides was not associated with an increased risk of intracranial gliomas in women. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 2-chloro-N-(ethoxymethyl)-N-(2-methyl-6-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)acetamide | alachlor | Aniline Compounds | Arsenicals | Atrazine | bentazone | Benzoic Acid | Carbamates | cyanazine | DDT | Diazinon | Dicamba | Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated | imazethapyr | Inorganic Chemicals | Malathion | metolachlor | Organophosphates | pendimethalin | Pesticides | Triazines | Trifluralin Controls for disease:Glioma | Subjects with disease:Glioma United States Details Glioma
11. Munger R, et al. (1997). We conclude that communities in southern Iowa with drinking water supplies contaminated with herbicides have elevated rates of intrauterine growth retardation compared to neighboring communities with different water supplies. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 2-xylene | 3-xylene | 4-xylene | alachlor | Atrazine | bromodichloromethane | bromoform | chlorodibromomethane | Chloroform | cyanazine | metolachlor | tetrachloroethane Pregnant females United States water, drinking 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 2-xylene | alachlor | Atrazine | bromodichloromethane | bromoform | chlorodibromomethane | Chloroform | cyanazine | metolachlor | tetrachloroethane | Xylenes Details Fetal Growth Retardation
12. Swan SH, et al. (2003). Study for Future Families (SFF) This is the first population-based study to demonstrate links between specific biomarkers of environmental exposures and biomarkers of male reproduction in humans. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | acetochlor | alachlor | Atrazine | DEET | Diazinon | Malathion | metolachlor Controls for disease:Infertility, Male | Subjects with disease:Infertility, Male United States semen 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | acetochlor | alachlor | Atrazine | DEET | Diazinon | Malathion | metolachlor Details Infertility, Male
13. Hoppin JA, et al. (2017). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) We evaluated the association of currently used pesticides with allergic and non-allergic wheeze among male farmers, and our results implicate several pesticides that are commonly used in agricultural and residential settings with adverse respiratory effects. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | acetochlor | Atrazine | bentazone | Carbaryl | Chlorpyrifos | clomazone | clopyralid | cyfluthrin | Dicamba | Dimethoate | Disulfoton | fenoxaprop ethyl | fluazifop-butyl | glyphosate | Herbicides | imazaquin | Insecticides | Malathion | mesotrione | metolachlor | N-(2,6-difluorophenyl)-5-methyl(1,2,4)-triazol(1,5-a)pyrimidine-2-sulfonamide | nicosulfuron | Permethrin | Petroleum | Picloram | Pyrethrins | Rodenticides | Simazine | triclopyr | Trifluralin | Warfarin Workers United States Details Respiratory Sounds | Rhinitis, Allergic
14. Hoppin JA, et al. (2002). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) Prevalence of wheeze was associated with individual pesticides independent of animals, crops, and grains. disease 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | alachlor | Aldicarb | aluminum phosphide | Atrazine | Benomyl | butylate | Captan | Carbaryl | Carbofuran | chlorimuron ethyl | Chlorpyrifos | Coumaphos | cyanazine | Diazinon | Dicamba | Dichlorvos | EPTC | Fonofos | glyphosate | imazethapyr | Lindane | Malathion | Maneb | metalaxyl | metolachlor | metribuzin | Paraquat | Parathion | pendimethalin | Permethrin | Petroleum | Phorate | terbufos | tetrachloroisophthalonitrile | Trichlorfon | Trifluralin | Ziram Subjects with disease:Asthma | Subjects with disease:Ige Responsiveness, Atopic | Workers United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Respiratory Sounds
15. Andreotti G, et al. (2014). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) We found two herbicides (alachlor and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and two insecticides (diazinon and aldrin) significantly associated with alterations in relative telomere length in blood DNA. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | alachlor | Aldrin | Diazinon Workers United States Details telomere maintenance
16. Hou L, et al. (2013). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) Seven pesticides previously associated with cancer risk in the epidemiologic literature were inversely associated with relative telomere length in buccal cell DNA among cancer-free pesticide applicators. age 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | alachlor | DDT | metolachlor | Permethrin | Toxaphene | Trifluralin Workers United States Details telomere maintenance
17. Beard JD, et al. (2013). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) Our study adds further evidence that high level pesticide exposure, such as pesticide poisoning, is associated with increased risk of depression and sets a lower bound on the level of exposure related to depression, thereby providing reassurance that the moderate levels of pesticide exposure experienced by farmers' wives likely do not increase risk. age | tobacco 2-chloro-N-(ethoxymethyl)-N-(2-methyl-6-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)acetamide | Carbamates | Herbicides | metalaxyl | Permethrin | Pesticides | Triazines Study subjects United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Depressive Disorder
18. Louis GM, et al. (2015). Longitudinal Investigation of Fertility and the Environment Study (LIFE) We found that select perfluorinated chemicals at environmentally relevant concentrations were associated with differences in sperm head, morphology, and DNA characteristics, including differences indicative of higher and lower semen quality. 2-(N-methylperfluorooctanesulfonamido)acetic acid | hexadecafluoro-nonanoic acid | Hydrocarbons, Fluorinated | perfluorodecanoic acid | perfluorooctanesulfonamide | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | Sulfonamides Study subjects United States serum 2-(N-methylperfluorooctanesulfonamido)acetic acid | hexadecafluoro-nonanoic acid | Hydrocarbons, Fluorinated | perfluorodecanoic acid | perfluorooctanesulfonamide | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | Sulfonamides Details spermatogenesis
19. Smarr MM, et al. (2017). Longitudinal Investigation of Fertility and the Environment Study (LIFE) Higher quartiles of preconception urinary concentrations of methyl paraben and ethyl paraben among female partners were associated with reduced couple fecundity in partner-specific and couple-based exposure models. sex 4-hydroxybenzoic acid | Anti-Infective Agents | benzylparaben | butylparaben | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | heptylparaben | methylparaben | Parabens | propylparaben | protocatechuic acid | triclocarban | Triclosan Study subjects United States urine 4-hydroxybenzoic acid | benzylparaben | butylparaben | Creatinine | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | heptylparaben | methylparaben | propylparaben | protocatechuic acid | triclocarban | Triclosan Details Infertility, Female | reproductive process
20. Dodson RE, et al. (2012). Common products contain complex mixtures of Endocrine-disrupting compounds and asthma-related compounds. 4-nonylphenol | 4-tert-octylphenol | benzophenone | benzyl acetate | bisphenol A | butylbenzyl phthalate | butylparaben | decamethylcyclopentasiloxane | Dibutyl Phthalate | dicyclohexyl phthalate | diethanolamine | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | diethyl phthalate | diisobutyl phthalate | diisononyl phthalate | di-n-hexyl phthalate | di-n-octyl phthalate | di-n-propylphthalate | Ethanolamine | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | Eugenol | galaxolide | limonene | linalool | methyleugenol | methylionone | methylparaben | methyl salicylate | musk ketone | musk xylene | n-butoxyethanol | octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane | octylmethoxycinnamate | oxybenzone | phenoxyethanol | Phenyl Ethers | Phenylethyl Alcohol | pichtosin | triclocarban | Triclosan United States air freshener | air freshener, car | baking soda | bar soap | body lotion | body wash | Borax | car interior cleaner | carpet cleaner | cat litter | conditioner | deodorant | diaper | dish liquid | dishwasher detergent | dryer sheet | fabric refresher | facial cleanser | facial lotion | floor cleaner | foundation | fragrance or perfume | glass cleaner | hair gel | hair spray or mousse or gel | hand sanitizer | hand soap | laundry bleach | laundry detergent | lip balm | lipstick | mascara | nail polish | pillow protector | polish or wax | scrubbing powder | shampoo | shaving cream | shower curtain, vinyl | stain remover | sunscreen | sunscreen composite | surface cleaner | toilet bowl cleaner | toothpaste | tub and tile cleaner | wet mop 4-nonylphenol | 4-tert-octylphenol | benzophenone | benzyl acetate | bisphenol A | butylbenzyl phthalate | butylparaben | decamethylcyclopentasiloxane | Dibutyl Phthalate | dicyclohexyl phthalate | diethanolamine | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | diethyl phthalate | diisobutyl phthalate | diisononyl phthalate | di-n-hexyl phthalate | di-n-octyl phthalate | di-n-propylphthalate | Ethanolamine | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | Eugenol | galaxolide | limonene | linalool | methyleugenol | methylionone | methylparaben | methyl salicylate | musk ketone | musk xylene | n-butoxyethanol | octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane | octylmethoxycinnamate | oxybenzone | phenoxyethanol | Phenyl Ethers | Phenylethyl Alcohol | pichtosin | triclocarban | Triclosan Details
21. Fraser AJ, et al. (2012). Fluorotelomer alcohol concentrations in office air significantly predict serum perfluorooctanoate concentrations in office workers. 8-2 fluorotelomer alcohol | Hydrocarbons, Fluorinated Workers United States air | serum 2-(N-ethylperfluorooctanesulfonamido)ethyl alcohol | 8-2 fluorotelomer alcohol | Hydrocarbons, Fluorinated | perfluorodecanoic acid | perfluorododecanoic acid | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorohexanoic acid | perfluorooctanesulfonamide | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Details
22. Wilson KM, et al. (2009). Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII) We found no association between acrylamide intake from the diet and risk of premenopausal breast cancer risk. Acrylamide Workers United States Acrylamide Details Breast Neoplasms
23. Zhou PP, et al. (2013). Total Dietary Study (TDS) The present study estimated acrylamide dietary exposures in the general population based on the results of the fourth Chinese total diet study. Acrylamide Study subjects China Acrylamide Details
24. Vesper HW, et al. (2010). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) U.S. population levels of acrylamide and glycidamide adducts are described. The high variability among individuals but modest differences between population subgroups suggest that sex, age, and race/ethnicity do not strongly affect acrylamide exposure. Acrylamide | glycidamide Study subjects United States blood Acrylamide | glycidamide Details
25. Pedersen M, et al. (2012). Dietary exposure to acrylamide was associated with reduced birth weight and head circumference. Consumption of specific foods during pregnancy was associated with higher acrylamide exposure in utero diet Acrylamide | Tobacco Smoke Pollution Fetuses | Pregnant females Denmark|Greece|
Norway|Spain|
United Kingdom
blood, cord Acrylamide | Ethylene Oxide | glycidamide Details Birth Weight | Fetal Growth Retardation | Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects | head development
26. Lee WJ, et al. (2004). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) Our findings suggest a possible association between alachlor application and incidence of lymphohematopoietic cancers among applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. alachlor Workers United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Hematologic Neoplasms | Leukemia | Multiple Myeloma
27. Lebov JF, et al. (2016). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) In this study of male pesticide applicators, risk of end-stage renal disease increased with increasing cumulative exposure to several pesticides, including the herbicides alachlor, metolachlor, paraquat and pendimethalin, and the insecticide permethrin. alachlor | Aldicarb | Atrazine | Chlordan | Coumaphos | imazethapyr | metalaxyl | metolachlor | Paraquat | Parathion | pendimethalin | Permethrin | Petroleum | Phorate Workers United States Details Kidney Failure, Chronic
28. Montgomery MP, et al. (2008). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) Long-term exposure from handling certain pesticides, in particular organochlorine and organophosphate insecticides, may be associated with increased risk of diabetes. alachlor | Aldrin | Atrazine | Chlordan | Chlorpyrifos | Coumaphos | cyanazine | Diazinon | Dichlorvos | glyphosate | Heptachlor | metribuzin | Phorate | terbufos | Trichlorfon Workers United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Diabetes Mellitus
29. Andreotti G, et al. (2010). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) Using data from the Agricultural Health Study, we examined the association between body mass index (BMI) and the risk of cancer at 17 sites and the interaction between BMI and pesticide use. body mass index | tobacco alachlor | Atrazine | Carbaryl | Carbofuran | chlorimuron ethyl | Chlorpyrifos | cyanazine | DDT | Diazinon | EPTC | Fonofos | glyphosate | Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated | imazethapyr | Malathion | methyl bromide | metolachlor | metribuzin | Organophosphates | pendimethalin | Permethrin | terbufos | Trifluralin Study subjects | Workers United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Breast Neoplasms | Colonic Neoplasms | Lung Neoplasms
30. Christensen CH, et al. (2016). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) In this case-control study nested within the Agricultural Health Study cohort, we evaluated evidence of statistical interaction between pesticide exposure and single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes involved in steroid hormone signaling, metabolism, or regulation with the risk of prostate cancer. genetics alachlor | butylate | Carbaryl | Dicamba | Fonofos | Malathion | terbufos Subjects with gene influence:ESR1 | Subjects with gene influence:HSD17B4 | Subjects with gene influence:SHBG | Subjects with gene influence:SRD5A1 | Subjects with gene influence:SULT2A1 | Workers United States Details Prostatic Neoplasms
31. Adgent MA, et al. (2015). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Antibiotics, but not triclosan, are negatively associated with urinary enterolactone; further study of triclosan exposure and enterolactone production may be needed to better understand positive associations among women. age | body mass index | diet | race | sex | socioeconomic status Anti-Bacterial Agents | Lincomycin | Macrolides | Quinolones | Sulfonamides | Triclosan Study subjects United States urine 2,3-bis(3'-hydroxybenzyl)butyrolactone | Triclosan Details
32. Alavanja MC, et al. (2004). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) We also found that four heavily used agricultural pesticides, including two herbicides (i.e., metolachlor and pendimethalin) and two insecticides (i.e., chlorpyrifos and diazinon), were associated with a significant excess lung cancer risk in the Agricultural Health Study cohort. Asbestos | Carbofuran | Chlorpyrifos | Diazinon | Dicamba | Dieldrin | Lead | metolachlor | pendimethalin | Tobacco Smoke Pollution Study subjects | Workers United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Lung Neoplasms
33. Thorpe N, et al. (2005). This hypothesis-generating study explores spatial patterns of childhood cancers in Maryland and investigates their potential associations with herbicides and nitrates in groundwater. Atrazine | metolachlor | Nitrates Children United States Details Bone Neoplasms | Brain Neoplasms | Leukemia | Lymphoma
34. Go YM, et al. (2015). We examined quantification strategies to enhance the usefulness of high-resolution metabolomics data for cumulative exposome research; the results provide a simple reference standardization protocol in which individual chemical concentrations are estimated by comparison to a concurrently analyzed, pooled reference sample with known chemical concentrations. Caffeine | Chlorobenzoates | chlorsulfuron | Cotinine | Fyrol PCF | hippuric acid | meobal | octylphenol | pirimicarb | Styrene Study subjects United States plasma Caffeine | Chlorobenzoates | chlorsulfuron | Cotinine | Fyrol PCF | hippuric acid | meobal | octylphenol | pirimicarb | Styrene Details
35. Slager RE, et al. (2010). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) The aim of this study was to analyze cross-sectional data on rhinitis in the past year and pesticide use from 21,958 Iowa and North Carolina farmers in the Agricultural Health Study, enrolled 1993-1997, to evaluate pesticide predictors of rhinitis. Captan | Carbaryl | Carbofuran | Diazinon | Dichlorvos | Malathion | metolachlor | Permethrin Workers United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Rhinitis
36. Barr DB, et al. (2010). In this paper, we explore the relation betweenmaternal and cord pesticide concentrations and birth outcomes including birth weight, birth length, and abdominal and head circumferences. Carbofuran | Chlorpyrifos | DEET | dicloran | dimethyl 2,3,5,6-tetrachloroterephthalate | metolachlor | tetrachloroisophthalonitrile | Trifluralin Infants or newborns | Mothers United States blood, cord | serum Carbofuran | Chlorpyrifos | DEET | dicloran | dimethyl 2,3,5,6-tetrachloroterephthalate | metolachlor | tetrachloroisophthalonitrile | Trifluralin Details Birth Weight | Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects | head development
37. Wu Z, et al. (2017). We report urinary biomarkers for occupational exposure to N,N-dimethylformamide and reveal dose-response relationships between their levels and liver injury, with males having a greater risk of injury. sex Dimethylformamide Workers China urine methylformamide | N-acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)cysteine Details Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury
38. Hahn S, et al. (2010). Exposure to biocides from household products may contribute to induction of sensitization in the population. Disinfectants Germany 1,2-benzisothiazoline-3-one | 2-Propanol | Benzalkonium Compounds | Benzoates | bronopol | chloroacetamide | Chlorpyrifos | d,d-T80-prallethrin | Dichlorvos | Formaldehyde | Glutaral | Hydrogen Peroxide | phenoxyethanol | phoxim | picaridin | Sodium Hypochlorite | Thiazoles | trichloroisocyanuric acid | Triclosan | troclosene Details
39. Rudel RA, et al. (2003). This study provides a basis for prioritizing toxicology and exposure research for individual endocrine-disrupting compounds and mixtures and provides new tools for exposure assessment in health studies. Endocrine Disruptors United States air, indoor | dust 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3-dibromopropanol | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,4-dichlorophenol | 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone | 2,5,2',5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl | 2-phenylphenol | 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol | 4-cumylphenol | 4-nitrophenol | 4-nonylphenol | 4-octylphenol | 4-phenylphenol | alachlor | anthracene | bendiocarb | benz(a)anthracene | Benzo(a)pyrene | bisphenol A | butylbenzyl phthalate | butylparaben | butylphen | Carbaryl | Chlordan | Chlorpyrifos | cypermethrin | DDT | Diazinon | Dibutyl Phthalate | Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | Dicofol | dicyclohexyl phthalate | Dieldrin | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | diethyl phthalate | diisobutyl phthalate | di-n-hexyl phthalate | di-n-propylphthalate | dioctyl adipate | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | Heptachlor | Lindane | Malathion | Methoxychlor | methylparaben | Methyl Parathion | pentabromodiphenyl ether | Pentachlorophenol | Permethrin | Piperonyl Butoxide | prometone | Propoxur | pyrene | tetrachloroisophthalonitrile | Trifluralin Details
40. Schecter A, et al. (2012). Our results show that several Polyfluoroalkyl Compounds (PFCs) were detectable in children in Dallas, Texas, in 2009, including those born after changes in PFC manufacturing occurred. Fluorocarbons Children United States serum perfluorodecanoic acid | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluoro-n-nonanoic acid | perfluorooctanesulfonamide | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Details
41. Chevrier C, et al. (2011). PELAGIE This study is the first to assess associations of birth outcomes with multiple urinary biomarkers of exposure to triazine and chloroacetanilide herbicides. Evidence of associations with adverse birth outcomes raises particular concerns for countries where atrazine is still in use. Herbicides Fetuses | Pregnant females France urine 2,6-diethylaniline | acetochlor | alachlor | ammeline | Atrazine | atrazine mercapturate | Creatinine | desethylatrazine | metolachlor | Simazine Details Congenital Abnormalities | Fetal Growth Retardation | Pregnancy Complications | head development
42. Ward MH, et al. (2006). Our results indicate that agricultural crop maps may be a useful method for estimating levels of herbicides in homes from nearby crop fields. Herbicides Study subjects | Workers United States dust, house 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | acetochlor | alachlor | Atrazine | bentazone | Dicamba | fluazifop-butyl | Herbicides | metolachlor | pendimethalin | Trifluralin Details
43. Borg D, et al. (2013). The objective of this study was to for the first time perform a cumulative health risk assessment of the 17 perfluoroalkylated and polyfluoroalkylated substances measured in the Swedish population, individually and in combination, using the Hazard Index approach. Hydrocarbons, Fluorinated | perfluorobutane | perfluorobutyric acid | perfluorodecanoic acid | perfluorododecanoic acid | perfluoroheptanoic acid | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorohexanoic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctanesulfonamide | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | perfluoroundecanoic acid Study subjects | Workers Sweden serum Hydrocarbons, Fluorinated | perfluorobutane | perfluorobutyric acid | perfluorodecanoic acid | perfluorododecanoic acid | perfluoroheptanoic acid | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorohexanoic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctanesulfonamide | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | perfluoroundecanoic acid Details Liver Diseases | immune response | mammary gland development | reproductive process
44. Weihe P, et al. (2008). To determine the prevalence and magnitude of exposure to polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in the Faroe Islands, we measured the serum concentrations of 9 PFCs in two Faroese population groups. Hydrocarbons, Halogenated Children | Pregnant females Faroe Islands serum perfluorodecanoic acid | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluoro-n-nonanoic acid | perfluorooctanesulfonamide | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Details
45. Silver SR, et al. (2015). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) This suggestion of an association between metolachlor and liver cancer among pesticide applicators is a novel finding and echoes observation of increased liver neoplasms in some animal studies; however, our findings for both liver cancer and follicular cell lymphoma warrant follow-up to better differentiate effects of metolachlor use from other factors. metolachlor Workers United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Liver Neoplasms | Lymphoma, Follicular
46. Rusiecki JA, et al. (2006). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) We found no strong associations between any cancer sites and metolachlor exposure, whether the lifetime days or the intensity-weighted lifetime days metric was used in the analysis or whether the lowest metolachlor-exposed group or the nonexposed group was used as the referent. metolachlor Workers United States Details Neoplasms
47. Olsen GW, et al. (2005). The present study was designed to assess the concentration trends of perfluorooctanesulfonate, perfluorooctanoate, and five other fluorochemicals in blood samples from individuals in the general population who resided near Washington County, Maryland, between 1974 and 1989. age N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamido acetate | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | Sulfonamides Study subjects United States plasma | serum N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamido acetate | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | Sulfonamides Details
48. Frederiksen H, et al. (2014). Copenhagen Mother-Child Cohort | Copenhagen Puberty Study | Odense Child Cohort Our study shows that nearly all Danes were exposed to the six most common phthalates, three phenols, and at least two of the parabens; the exposure to other non-persistent chemicals was also widespread. Parabens | Phenols | Phthalic Acids Children | Pregnant females | Study subjects Denmark urine 2,4,5-trichlorophenol | 2,4-dichlorophenol | 2,5-dichlorophenol | 2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate | 2-phenylphenol | 4-phenylphenol | benzylparaben | bisphenol A | butylparaben | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | methylparaben | mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate | mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate | mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate | mono-benzyl phthalate | monobutyl phthalate | mono(carboxy-isooctyl)phthalate | monoethyl phthalate | mono-isobutyl phthalate | monoisononylphthalate | mono-n-octyl phthalate | oxybenzone | propylparaben | triclocarban | Triclosan Details
49. Tefre de Renzy-Martin K, et al. (2014). Odense Child Cohort We found detectable levels of phthalate metabolites, parabens, and phenols in almost all pregnant women, suggesting combined multiple exposures; our results raise concern, as current toxicological risk assessments in humans do not take into account simultaneous exposure, and the true cumulative risk for the fetus may be underestimated Parabens | Phenols | Phthalic Acids Pregnant females Denmark urine 2,4,5-trichlorophenol | 2,4-dichlorophenol | 2,5-dichlorophenol | 2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate | 2-phenylphenol | 4-phenylphenol | benzylparaben | bisphenol A | butylparaben | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | methylparaben | mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate | mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate | mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate | mono-benzyl phthalate | monobutyl phthalate | mono(carboxy-isooctyl)phthalate | monoethyl phthalate | mono-isobutyl phthalate | monoisononylphthalate | mono-n-octyl phthalate | oxybenzone | propylparaben | triclocarban | Triclosan Details
50. Castorina R, et al. (2010). Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) | National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Our findings indicate that pregnant women in the Salinas Valley are chronically exposed to several current-use organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides and chlorinated phenols, with additional intermittent exposures to other pesticides. Findings suggest that the CHAMACOS cohort has an additional burden of precursor pesticide exposure compared with the national sample, possibly from living and/or working in an agricultural area. Pesticides Pregnant females United States urine 1-naphthol | 2,4,5-trichlorophenol | 2,4,6-trichlorophenol | 2,4-dichlorophenol | 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 2,5-dichlorophenol | 2-naphthol | 2-phenylphenol | 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol | 3-phenoxybenzoic acid | 4-nitrophenol | acephate | DEET | Dimethoate | Ethylenethiourea | Pentachlorophenol Details
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