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Chemical Benzoates

These are exposure studies associated with the chemical and all of its children.

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1–50 of 70 results.
  Reference Associated Study Title Author's Summary Study Factors Stressor Receptors Country Medium Exposure Marker Measurements Outcome
1. Mi T, et al. (2013). We describe two cases of acute toxic leukoencephalopathy in migrant workers who were occupationally exposed to organic solvents in construction materials. 1,2,3-trichloropropane | Solvents | Toluene Workers China blood | urine 1,2,3-trichloropropane | Benzoic Acid Details Leukoencephalopathies | Neurotoxicity Syndromes | Occupational Diseases
2. Schreder ED, et al. (2014). Levels of flame retardants in house dust and a transport pathway from homes to the outdoor environment were investigated in communities near the Columbia River in Washington state. 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane | 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6-nonabromodiphenyl ether | 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptabromodiphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate | bis(2-ethylhexyl) 2,3,4,5-tetrabromophthalate | decabromobiphenyl ether | decabromodiphenyl ethane | Flame Retardants | Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers | hexabrominated diphenyl ether 153 | hexabromocyclododecane | hexabromodiphenyl ether 154 | pentabrominated diphenyl ether 100 | pentabromodiphenyl ether | tetrabromobisphenol A | tribromodiphenyl ether 28 | tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate | tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate | tris(chloroethyl)phosphate United States dust | waste water, laundry 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane | 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6-nonabromodiphenyl ether | 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptabromodiphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate | bis(2-ethylhexyl) 2,3,4,5-tetrabromophthalate | decabromobiphenyl ether | decabromodiphenyl ethane | Flame Retardants | Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers | hexabrominated diphenyl ether 153 | hexabromocyclododecane | hexabromodiphenyl ether 154 | pentabrominated diphenyl ether 100 | pentabromodiphenyl ether | tetrabromobisphenol A | tribromodiphenyl ether 28 | tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate | tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate | tris(chloroethyl)phosphate Details
3. Stapleton HM, et al. (2009). We designed this study to identify potential organophosphate flame retardant chemicals currently being used in polyurethane foam in residential and office furniture purchased in the United States. 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane | 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate | bis(2-ethylhexyl) 2,3,4,5-tetrabromophthalate | Flame Retardants | Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers | hexabromocyclododecane | triphenyl phosphate | tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate | tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate Children | Study subjects United States dust 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane | 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate | bis(2-ethylhexyl) 2,3,4,5-tetrabromophthalate | Flame Retardants | Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers | hexabromocyclododecane | triphenyl phosphate | tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate | tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate Details
4. Eskenazi B, et al. (2018). Venda Health Examination of Mothers, Babies and the Environment (VHEMBE) Study Prenatal exposure to pyrethroids may be associated at 1 y of age with poorer social-emotional development. At 2 y of age, poorer language development was observed with higher prenatal pyrethroid levels. 2,2-(2-chlorophenyl-4'-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene | 3-phenoxybenzoic acid | DDT | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | o,p'-DDT | Pyrethrins Children | Pregnant females South Africa serum | urine 2,2-(2-chlorophenyl-4'-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene | 3-phenoxybenzoic acid | DDT | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | o,p'-DDT | Pyrethrins Details cognition | motor behavior | social behavior
5. Bradman A, et al. (2014). We measured flame retardants in air and dust collected from 40 California early childhood education facilities between May 2010 and May 2011. 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6-nonabromodiphenyl ether | 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,6,6'-nonabromodiphenyl ether | 2,2',3,3',4,4',6,6'-octabromodiphenyl ether | 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptabromodiphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4',5-brominated diphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2-ethylhexyltetrabromobenzoate | bis(2-ethylhexyl) 2,3,4,5-tetrabromophthalate | decabromobiphenyl ether | Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers | hexabrominated diphenyl ether 153 | hexabromodiphenyl ether 154 | pentabrominated diphenyl ether 100 | tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate | tris(chloroethyl)phosphate Children United States air | dust 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6-nonabromodiphenyl ether | 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,6,6'-nonabromodiphenyl ether | 2,2',3,3',4,4',6,6'-octabromodiphenyl ether | 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptabromodiphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4',5-brominated diphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2-ethylhexyltetrabromobenzoate | bis(2-ethylhexyl) 2,3,4,5-tetrabromophthalate | decabromobiphenyl ether | Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers | hexabrominated diphenyl ether 153 | hexabromodiphenyl ether 154 | pentabrominated diphenyl ether 100 | tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate | tris(chloroethyl)phosphate Details
6. Abbasi G, et al. (2016). This study aimed to identify electronic products that contributed to halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) measured in indoor dust and to develop a screening method for identifying HFRs in hard polymer products. 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptabromodiphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4',5-brominated diphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2,3,4,5,6-pentabromoethylbenzene | 2,3,4,5,6-pentabromotoluene | 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate | allyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether | decabromobiphenyl ether | Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers | hexabrominated diphenyl ether 153 | hexabromobenzene | hexabromodiphenyl ether 154 | pentabrominated diphenyl ether 100 | tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate Canada dust | product wipe 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptabromodiphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4',5-brominated diphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2,3,4,5,6-pentabromoethylbenzene | 2,3,4,5,6-pentabromotoluene | 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate | allyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether | Bromine | decabromobiphenyl ether | hexabrominated diphenyl ether 153 | hexabromobenzene | hexabromodiphenyl ether 154 | pentabrominated diphenyl ether 100 | tribromodiphenyl ether 28 | tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate Details
7. Stapleton HM, et al. (2014). This study represents the first examination of US children's exposure to a suite of flame retardant chemicals in indoor environments. 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptabromodiphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4',5-brominated diphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2-ethylhexyltetrabromobenzoate | bis(2-ethylhexyl) 2,3,4,5-tetrabromophthalate | decabromobiphenyl ether | Flame Retardants | Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers | hexabrominated diphenyl ether 153 | hexabromocyclododecane | hexabromodiphenyl ether 154 | pentabrominated diphenyl ether 100 | tetrabromobisphenol A | tribromodiphenyl ether 28 | tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate | tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate | tris(chloroethyl)phosphate Children United States dust | handwipe 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptabromodiphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4',5-brominated diphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2-ethylhexyltetrabromobenzoate | bis(2-ethylhexyl) 2,3,4,5-tetrabromophthalate | decabromobiphenyl ether | Flame Retardants | Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers | hexabrominated diphenyl ether 153 | hexabromocyclododecane | hexabromodiphenyl ether 154 | pentabrominated diphenyl ether 100 | tetrabromobisphenol A | tribromodiphenyl ether 28 | tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate | tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate | tris(chloroethyl)phosphate Details
8. Arcury TA, et al. (2007). In this investigation we documented the pesticide urinary metabolite levels of farmworker children in North Carolina, determined the number of different metabolites detected for each child, and delineated risk factors associated with the number of metabolites. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 3-phenoxybenzoic acid | acetochlor | Atrazine | Chlorpyrifos | Coumaphos | DEET | Diazinon | isazophos | Malathion | metolachlor | Parathion | pirimiphos methyl Children United States urine 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 3-phenoxybenzoic acid | acetochlor | Atrazine | Chlorpyrifos | Coumaphos | DEET | Diazinon | isazophos | Malathion | metolachlor | Parathion | pirimiphos methyl Details
9. Bakke B, et al. (2009). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) We measured the exposure to atrazine and selected non-persistent pesticides among corn farmers during a growing season; urinary atrazine mercapturate levels in farmers were largely driven by recent application of atrazine; therefore, the amount of atrazine applied is likely to provide valid surrogates of atrazine exposure in epidemiologic studies. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | acetochlor | Atrazine | Chlorpyrifos | Coumaphos | Diazinon | Malathion | Methyl Parathion | metolachlor | pirimiphos methyl | Pyrethrins Workers United States urine 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol | 3-phenoxybenzoic acid | acetochlor mercapturate | atrazine mercapturate | chlorferron | Diazinon | Malathion | Methyl Parathion | metolachlor | pirimiphos methyl Details
10. Goldner WS, et al. (2010). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) These data support a role of organochlorines, in addition to fungicides, in the etiology of thyroid disease among female spouses enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | alachlor | Aldrin | Atrazine | Benomyl | butylate | Captan | Carbaryl | Carbon Disulfide | Carbon Tetrachloride | Chlordan | chlorimuron ethyl | Chlorpyrifos | cyanazine | DDT | Diazinon | Dicamba | Dichlorvos | EPTC | Fonofos | Fungicides, Industrial | glyphosate | Heptachlor | Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated | imazethapyr | Insecticides | Lindane | Malathion | mancozeb | Maneb | metalaxyl | methyl bromide | metolachlor | metribuzin | Paraquat | Parathion | pendimethalin | Petroleum | terbufos | tetrachloroisophthalonitrile | Trifluralin Study subjects United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Hyperthyroidism | Hypothyroidism
11. Goldner WS, et al. (2013). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) We found statistically significant associations between specific herbicides and insecticides and hypothyroid disease in male pesticide applicators. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | alachlor | Aldrin | butylate | Carbofuran | Chlordan | DDT | Diazinon | Dicamba | fenoprop | Heptachlor | Lindane | Malathion | metalaxyl | Parathion | Petroleum | Toxaphene Workers United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Hyperthyroidism | Hypothyroidism
12. Kamel F, et al. (2007). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) This study suggests that exposure to certain pesticides may increase Parkinson's disease risk. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | Benomyl | butylate | Carbon Disulfide | Carbon Tetrachloride | cyanazine | Dicamba | Ethylene Dibromide | Lindane | mancozeb | Maneb | methyl bromide | Paraquat | pendimethalin | Pesticides | Phorate | tetrachloroisophthalonitrile Study subjects | Workers United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Parkinson Disease
13. Vernet C, et al. (2018). SEPAGES During pregnancy, phenol biomarkers showed a strong within-day variability, while the variability between days of a given week was more limited. 2,4-dichlorophenol | 2,5-dichlorophenol | bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)sulfone | bisphenol A | butylparaben | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | methylparaben | oxybenzone | propylparaben | Triclosan Pregnant females France urine 2,4-dichlorophenol | 2,5-dichlorophenol | bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)sulfone | bisphenol A | butylparaben | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | methylparaben | oxybenzone | propylparaben | Triclosan Details
14. LaRocca J, et al. (2015). Harvard Epigenetic Birth Cohort (HEBC) These results suggest that prenatal phenol and phthalate exposure is associated with altered microRNA expression in placenta, suggesting a potential mechanism of endocrine-disrupting chemicals toxicity in humans. 2,4-dichlorophenol | 2,5-dichlorophenol | bisphenol A | butylbenzyl phthalate | butylparaben | Dibutyl Phthalate | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | diethyl phthalate | diisobutyl phthalate | diisodecyl phthalate | diisononyl phthalate | methylparaben | oxybenzone | Parabens | Phenols | Phthalic Acids | propylparaben | Triclosan Infants or newborns | Pregnant females United States placenta | urine 2,4-dichlorophenol | 2,5-dichlorophenol | 2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate | bisphenol A | butylparaben | diisodecyl phthalate | diisononyl phthalate | methylparaben | MIR142 | MIR15A | MIR185 | mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate | mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate | mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate | mono-benzyl phthalate | monobutyl phthalate | monoethyl phthalate | mono-isobutyl phthalate | oxybenzone | propylparaben | Triclosan Details regulation of gene silencing by miRNA
15. Carreón T, et al. (2005). Upper Midwest Health Study (UMHS) Results show that exposure to pesticides was not associated with an increased risk of intracranial gliomas in women. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 2-chloro-N-(ethoxymethyl)-N-(2-methyl-6-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)acetamide | alachlor | Aniline Compounds | Arsenicals | Atrazine | bentazone | Benzoic Acid | Carbamates | cyanazine | DDT | Diazinon | Dicamba | Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated | imazethapyr | Inorganic Chemicals | Malathion | metolachlor | Organophosphates | pendimethalin | Pesticides | Triazines | Trifluralin Controls for disease:Glioma | Subjects with disease:Glioma United States Details Glioma
16. Swan SH, et al. (2003). Study for Future Families (SFF) This is the first population-based study to demonstrate links between specific biomarkers of environmental exposures and biomarkers of male reproduction in humans. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | acetochlor | alachlor | Atrazine | DEET | Diazinon | Malathion | metolachlor Controls for disease:Infertility, Male | Subjects with disease:Infertility, Male United States semen 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | acetochlor | alachlor | Atrazine | DEET | Diazinon | Malathion | metolachlor Details Infertility, Male
17. Hoppin JA, et al. (2017). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) We evaluated the association of currently used pesticides with allergic and non-allergic wheeze among male farmers, and our results implicate several pesticides that are commonly used in agricultural and residential settings with adverse respiratory effects. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | acetochlor | Atrazine | bentazone | Carbaryl | Chlorpyrifos | clomazone | clopyralid | cyfluthrin | Dicamba | Dimethoate | Disulfoton | fenoxaprop ethyl | fluazifop-butyl | glyphosate | Herbicides | imazaquin | Insecticides | Malathion | mesotrione | metolachlor | N-(2,6-difluorophenyl)-5-methyl(1,2,4)-triazol(1,5-a)pyrimidine-2-sulfonamide | nicosulfuron | Permethrin | Petroleum | Picloram | Pyrethrins | Rodenticides | Simazine | triclopyr | Trifluralin | Warfarin Workers United States Details Respiratory Sounds | Rhinitis, Allergic
18. Hoppin JA, et al. (2002). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) Prevalence of wheeze was associated with individual pesticides independent of animals, crops, and grains. disease 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | alachlor | Aldicarb | aluminum phosphide | Atrazine | Benomyl | butylate | Captan | Carbaryl | Carbofuran | chlorimuron ethyl | Chlorpyrifos | Coumaphos | cyanazine | Diazinon | Dicamba | Dichlorvos | EPTC | Fonofos | glyphosate | imazethapyr | Lindane | Malathion | Maneb | metalaxyl | metolachlor | metribuzin | Paraquat | Parathion | pendimethalin | Permethrin | Petroleum | Phorate | terbufos | tetrachloroisophthalonitrile | Trichlorfon | Trifluralin | Ziram Subjects with disease:Asthma | Subjects with disease:Ige Responsiveness, Atopic | Workers United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Respiratory Sounds
19. Aszyk J, et al. (2017). Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of 42 flavouring compounds and nicotine in liquids for e-cigarettes. 2,5-dimethylpyrazine | 2,6-lutidine | 2-acetylpyrrole | 5-methyl-2-furfural | benzyl acetate | cyclotene | diethyl succinate | ethyl acetoacetate | ethyl lactate | ethyl maltol | ethyl vanillin | furaneol | gamma-valerolactone | linalool | maltol | Menthol | menthone | methyl cinnamate | methylheptenone | methyl salicylate | Nicotine | pyridine | tetramethylpyrazine | vanillin Poland e-cigarette 2,5-dimethylpyrazine | 2,6-lutidine | 2-acetylpyrrole | 5-methyl-2-furfural | benzyl acetate | cyclotene | diethyl succinate | ethyl acetoacetate | ethyl lactate | ethyl maltol | ethyl vanillin | furaneol | gamma-valerolactone | linalool | maltol | Menthol | menthone | methyl cinnamate | methylheptenone | methyl salicylate | Nicotine | pyridine | tetramethylpyrazine | vanillin Details
20. Xue J, et al. (2014). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) This paper presents combined dietary and residential exposure estimates and cumulative doses for seven commonly used pyrethroids, and comparisons of model evaluation results with NHANES biomarker data for 3-phenoxybenzoic acid and 3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid metabolites. 3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid | 3-phenoxybenzoic acid | Allethrin | cyfluthrin | cypermethrin | decamethrin | fenvalerate | Permethrin | resmethrin Children | Study subjects United States urine 3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid | 3-phenoxybenzoic acid | Pyrethrins Details
21. Zartarian V, et al. (2012). Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants (CTEPP) | National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) This paper presents an aggregate permethrin exposure and dose assessment for 3- to 5-year-old children, using Environmental Protection Agency's probabilistic Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation-Multimedia model. 3-phenoxybenzoic acid | Permethrin Children United States urine 3-phenoxybenzoic acid | Permethrin Details
22. Nazaroff W, et al. (2012). The study introduces the intake-to-production ratio as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical production results in human exposure. This ratio is well suited as an aggregate metric of exposure intensity for characterizing population-level exposure to synthesized chemicals, particularly those that move fairly rapidly from manufacture to human intake and have relatively stable production and intake rates. 4-dichlorobenzene | bisphenol A | butylbenzyl phthalate | Dibutyl Phthalate | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | diethyl phthalate | diisobutyl phthalate | methylparaben | Triclosan Study subjects United States 4-dichlorobenzene | bisphenol A | butylbenzyl phthalate | Dibutyl Phthalate | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | diethyl phthalate | diisobutyl phthalate | methylparaben | Triclosan Details
23. Smarr MM, et al. (2017). Longitudinal Investigation of Fertility and the Environment Study (LIFE) Higher quartiles of preconception urinary concentrations of methyl paraben and ethyl paraben among female partners were associated with reduced couple fecundity in partner-specific and couple-based exposure models. sex 4-hydroxybenzoic acid | Anti-Infective Agents | benzylparaben | butylparaben | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | heptylparaben | methylparaben | Parabens | propylparaben | protocatechuic acid | triclocarban | Triclosan Study subjects United States urine 4-hydroxybenzoic acid | benzylparaben | butylparaben | Creatinine | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | heptylparaben | methylparaben | propylparaben | protocatechuic acid | triclocarban | Triclosan Details Infertility, Female | reproductive process
24. Dodson RE, et al. (2012). Common products contain complex mixtures of Endocrine-disrupting compounds and asthma-related compounds. 4-nonylphenol | 4-tert-octylphenol | benzophenone | benzyl acetate | bisphenol A | butylbenzyl phthalate | butylparaben | decamethylcyclopentasiloxane | Dibutyl Phthalate | dicyclohexyl phthalate | diethanolamine | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | diethyl phthalate | diisobutyl phthalate | diisononyl phthalate | di-n-hexyl phthalate | di-n-octyl phthalate | di-n-propylphthalate | Ethanolamine | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | Eugenol | galaxolide | limonene | linalool | methyleugenol | methylionone | methylparaben | methyl salicylate | musk ketone | musk xylene | n-butoxyethanol | octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane | octylmethoxycinnamate | oxybenzone | phenoxyethanol | Phenyl Ethers | Phenylethyl Alcohol | pichtosin | triclocarban | Triclosan United States air freshener | air freshener, car | baking soda | bar soap | body lotion | body wash | Borax | car interior cleaner | carpet cleaner | cat litter | conditioner | deodorant | diaper | dish liquid | dishwasher detergent | dryer sheet | fabric refresher | facial cleanser | facial lotion | floor cleaner | foundation | fragrance or perfume | glass cleaner | hair gel | hair spray or mousse or gel | hand sanitizer | hand soap | laundry bleach | laundry detergent | lip balm | lipstick | mascara | nail polish | pillow protector | polish or wax | scrubbing powder | shampoo | shaving cream | shower curtain, vinyl | stain remover | sunscreen | sunscreen composite | surface cleaner | toilet bowl cleaner | toothpaste | tub and tile cleaner | wet mop 4-nonylphenol | 4-tert-octylphenol | benzophenone | benzyl acetate | bisphenol A | butylbenzyl phthalate | butylparaben | decamethylcyclopentasiloxane | Dibutyl Phthalate | dicyclohexyl phthalate | diethanolamine | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | diethyl phthalate | diisobutyl phthalate | diisononyl phthalate | di-n-hexyl phthalate | di-n-octyl phthalate | di-n-propylphthalate | Ethanolamine | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | Eugenol | galaxolide | limonene | linalool | methyleugenol | methylionone | methylparaben | methyl salicylate | musk ketone | musk xylene | n-butoxyethanol | octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane | octylmethoxycinnamate | oxybenzone | phenoxyethanol | Phenyl Ethers | Phenylethyl Alcohol | pichtosin | triclocarban | Triclosan Details
25. Christensen CH, et al. (2016). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) In this case-control study nested within the Agricultural Health Study cohort, we evaluated evidence of statistical interaction between pesticide exposure and single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes involved in steroid hormone signaling, metabolism, or regulation with the risk of prostate cancer. genetics alachlor | butylate | Carbaryl | Dicamba | Fonofos | Malathion | terbufos Subjects with gene influence:ESR1 | Subjects with gene influence:HSD17B4 | Subjects with gene influence:SHBG | Subjects with gene influence:SRD5A1 | Subjects with gene influence:SULT2A1 | Workers United States Details Prostatic Neoplasms
26. Shin HM, et al. (2014). Early Autism Risk Longitudinal Investigation (EARLI) A total of six phthalates, four personal care product ingredients, and five flame retardants were analyzed in household dust from 30 homes in three different regions in the U.S. Aminobenzoates | Benzopyrans | butylbenzyl phthalate | Dibutyl Phthalate | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | diethyl phthalate | diisobutyl phthalate | diisononyl phthalate | Flame Retardants | octylmethoxycinnamate | Tetrahydronaphthalenes | triphenyl phosphate | tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate | tris(chloroethyl)phosphate United States dust Aminobenzoates | Benzopyrans | butylbenzyl phthalate | Dibutyl Phthalate | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | diethyl phthalate | diisobutyl phthalate | diisononyl phthalate | Flame Retardants | octylmethoxycinnamate | Tetrahydronaphthalenes | triphenyl phosphate | tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate | tris(chloroethyl)phosphate Details
27. Alavanja MC, et al. (2004). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) We also found that four heavily used agricultural pesticides, including two herbicides (i.e., metolachlor and pendimethalin) and two insecticides (i.e., chlorpyrifos and diazinon), were associated with a significant excess lung cancer risk in the Agricultural Health Study cohort. Asbestos | Carbofuran | Chlorpyrifos | Diazinon | Dicamba | Dieldrin | Lead | metolachlor | pendimethalin | Tobacco Smoke Pollution Study subjects | Workers United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Lung Neoplasms
28. Ferrari M, et al. (2015). The short-term use of the specific brand of nicotine-free e-cigarette assessed in this study had no immediate adverse effects on non-smokers and only small effects on forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced expiratory flow 25% in smokers. tobacco Benzoic Acid | ethyl carbonate | Nicotine | Propylene Glycol | quinoline | Tobacco Smoke Pollution Study subjects Italy Details respiratory gaseous exchange
29. Khan A, et al. (2017). Ewha Birth & Growth Cohort Study We conducted a high-resolution metabolomics study and detected elevated metabolites of steroidogenesis and amino acid metabolism in preadolescent female children with high urinary bisphenol A levels. sex bisphenol A Children Korea, Republic of urine 22-hydroxycholesterol | 3-methoxytyramine | aerobactin | Androstenedione | anthranilic acid | bisphenol A | Carnitine | Cholesterol | Corticosterone | cortolone | crotonyl-coenzyme A | Cytidine Monophosphate N-Acetylneuraminic Acid | cytidine monophosphate-N-glycoloylneuraminic acid | estrone sulfate | fructose-6-phosphate | glucosaminic acid | Hydrocortisone | isocaproaldehyde | Malonyl Coenzyme A | N-acetylmuramic acid | N-acetylserotonin | phenylacetylglycine | Pregnanediol | Progesterone | testosterone glucuronate Details regulation of cellular amino acid metabolic process | regulation of steroid biosynthetic process
30. Larsson K, et al. (2014). COnsortium to Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale (COPHES) | DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES) The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the levels of 10 phthalate metabolites, 5 parabens, bisphenol A and triclosan in urine from Swedish children (6-11 years old) and their mothers, in relation to demographics, lifestyle, housing and different potential sources of exposure to these chemicals. bisphenol A | butylbenzyl phthalate | butylparaben | Dibutyl Phthalate | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | diethyl phthalate | diisononyl phthalate | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | methylparaben | mono-benzyl phthalate | monobutyl phthalate | monoethyl phthalate | propylparaben | Triclosan Children | Mothers Sweden urine 2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate | bisphenol A | butylparaben | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | diisononyl phthalate | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | methylparaben | mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate | mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate | mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate | mono-benzyl phthalate | monobutyl phthalate | mono(carboxy-isooctyl)phthalate | monoethyl phthalate | propylparaben | Triclosan Details
31. Carwile JL, et al. (2009). Despite within-person variability resulting from other sources of BPA exposure, a measurable increase in urinary BPA resulted from only 1 week of exposure to beverages contained in polycarbonate bottles. bisphenol A | methylparaben | oxybenzone | propylparaben | Triclosan Study subjects United States urine bisphenol A | methylparaben | oxybenzone | propylparaben | Triclosan Details
32. Calafat AM, et al. (2009). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) In this follow-up study of premature infants receiving care in two neonatal intensive care units, we found moderate to strong institution-adjusted correlations between urinary concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA) and the metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), indicating that BPA and DEHP may share common exposure sources. bisphenol A | methylparaben | oxybenzone | propylparaben | Triclosan Children | Infants or newborns | Study subjects United States urine bisphenol A | methylparaben | oxybenzone | propylparaben | Triclosan Details
33. Scinicariello F, et al. (2016). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) We examined the association of bisphenol A (BPA), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), triclosan (TCS), and parabens with serum total testosterone (TT) levels in child and adolescent participants (ages 6-19 years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012. sex bisphenol A | oxybenzone | Parabens | Triclosan Children United States serum | urine bisphenol A | Cotinine | Creatinine | oxybenzone | Parabens | Testosterone | Triclosan Details testosterone biosynthetic process
34. Wang W, et al. (2016). In this study, the occurrence of six synthetic phenolic antioxidants including butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and deriviatives was examined in 63 dental sealant products available in the US (with some manufactured in foreign countries); the estimated daily intake of BHT from dental sealants was several orders of magnitude lower than the current acceptable daily intake. Butylated Hydroxyanisole | Butylated Hydroxytoluene Children | Study subjects Greece|Korea, Republic of|
Liechtenstein|United States
dental sealant 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-benzoquinone | 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-one | 2-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole | 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde | 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid | Butylated Hydroxytoluene Details
35. Rodil R, et al. (2010). We determined the concentrations of two synthetic phenolic antioxidants and their main metabolites in water, and show that BHT and BHT-Q are the highest in waste water and that the metabolites BHT-CHO and BHT-COOH are the most resistant to water treatment in sewage and river samples. Butylated Hydroxyanisole | Butylated Hydroxytoluene | Waste Water Spain water, river | water, waste 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-benzoquinone | 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-one | 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde | 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid | Butylated Hydroxyanisole | Butylated Hydroxytoluene Details
36. Zhang R, et al. (2018). Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is widely used in the food and cosmetic industry as an additive and preservative; BHT, however, is unstable in the environment and can be transformed through oxidation; we developed an analytical method to simultaneously determine BHT and its four transformation products in indoor dust and sediment samples. Butylated Hydroxytoluene | Dust China dust, house | sediment 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-benzoquinone | 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-one | 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde | 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid | Butylated Hydroxytoluene Details
37. Harley KG, et al. (2016). Health and Environmental Research on Makeup of Salinas Adolescents (HERMOSA) Study | National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) This study demonstrates that techniques available to consumers, such as choosing personal care products that are labelled to be free of phthalates, parabens, triclosan, and benzophenone-3, can reduce personal exposure to possible endocrine disrupting chemicals. butylparaben | Dibutyl Phthalate | diethyl phthalate | diisobutyl phthalate | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | methylparaben | oxybenzone | propylparaben | Triclosan Children United States urine butylparaben | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | methylparaben | monobutyl phthalate | monoethyl phthalate | mono-isobutyl phthalate | oxybenzone | propylparaben | Triclosan Details
38. Shirai S, et al. (2013). The concentrations of parabens in urine taken from pregnant women in Japan were frequently found to be quantifiable, indicating widespread exposure and suggesting dermal route (probably from personal care products); however, there was no statistical association with the anogenital index of male offspring, suggesting that parabens were not estrogenically active at the exposure level. butylparaben | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | methylparaben | Parabens | propylparaben Infants or newborns | Pregnant females Japan urine 4-hydroxybenzoic acid | butylparaben | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | methylparaben | propylparaben Details Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects | male genitalia development
39. Calafat AM, et al. (2010). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) In summary, we found significant differences in concentrations of parabens across demographic groups, particularly those associated with sex and race/ethnicity. race | sex butylparaben | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | methylparaben | propylparaben Study subjects United States urine butylparaben | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | methylparaben | propylparaben Details
40. Go YM, et al. (2015). We examined quantification strategies to enhance the usefulness of high-resolution metabolomics data for cumulative exposome research; the results provide a simple reference standardization protocol in which individual chemical concentrations are estimated by comparison to a concurrently analyzed, pooled reference sample with known chemical concentrations. Caffeine | Chlorobenzoates | chlorsulfuron | Cotinine | Fyrol PCF | hippuric acid | meobal | octylphenol | pirimicarb | Styrene Study subjects United States plasma Caffeine | Chlorobenzoates | chlorsulfuron | Cotinine | Fyrol PCF | hippuric acid | meobal | octylphenol | pirimicarb | Styrene Details
41. Barr DB, et al. (2010). In this paper, we explore the relation betweenmaternal and cord pesticide concentrations and birth outcomes including birth weight, birth length, and abdominal and head circumferences. Carbofuran | Chlorpyrifos | DEET | dicloran | dimethyl 2,3,5,6-tetrachloroterephthalate | metolachlor | tetrachloroisophthalonitrile | Trifluralin Infants or newborns | Mothers United States blood, cord | serum Carbofuran | Chlorpyrifos | DEET | dicloran | dimethyl 2,3,5,6-tetrachloroterephthalate | metolachlor | tetrachloroisophthalonitrile | Trifluralin Details Birth Weight | Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects | head development
42. van Wendel de Joode B, et al. (2016). Our findings indicate that children living near banana and plantain plantations are exposed to pesticides that may affect their neurodevelopment, which for certain domains may differ between boys and girls. sex Chlorpyrifos | mancozeb | Pyrethrins Children Costa Rica urine 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol | 3-phenoxybenzoic acid | Ethylenethiourea Details Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity | behavior | cognition | learned vocalization behavior or vocal learning | memory | visual perception
43. Berkowitz GS, et al. (2004). Children's Environmental Health Study In this report we evaluate the effects of pesticide exposure on birth weight, length, head circumference, and gestational age among 404 births between May 1998 and May 2002. Chlorpyrifos | Pentachlorophenol | Pyrethrins Infants or newborns | Pregnant females United States urine 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol | 3-phenoxybenzoic acid | Pentachlorophenol Details Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
44. Philippat C, et al. (2013). Study of Advanced Reproductive Age and Environmental Health (SARAEH) Amniotic fluid detection frequencies for most phenols were low; the reproducibility of urine measures was poor for bisphenol A, but good for the other phenols; collecting multiple urine samples during pregnancy is an option to reduce exposure measurement error. Creatinine | Phenols Pregnant females United States amniotic fluid | urine 2,4-dichlorophenol | 2,5-dichlorophenol | bisphenol A | butylparaben | Creatinine | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | methylparaben | oxybenzone | propylparaben | Triclosan Details
45. Schlumpf M, et al. (2010). We present data on chemicals in human milk of 54 mother/child pairs, where for the first time cosmetic UV filters (sunscreens), synthetic musks, parabens, and phthalate metabolites were analyzed in the same sample along with persistent organochlor pollutants, polybrominated diphenylethers, and polychlorinated biphenyls. diet Dibutyl Phthalate | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | diisobutyl phthalate | Parabens | Perfume | Pesticides | Polybrominated Biphenyls | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | Sunscreening Agents Infants or newborns | Mothers Switzerland milk, human 2,2',3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',4,4',5-brominated diphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,4'-trichlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',5'-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,5,2',5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl | acetyl methyl tetramethyl tetralin | alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane | beta-hexachlorocyclohexane | Chlordan | chlorpyrifos-ethyl | DDT | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | Dieldrin | enzacamene | ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | galaxolide | Heptachlor | hexabrominated diphenyl ether 153 | hexabromodiphenyl ether 154 | Hexachlorobenzene | homosalate | Lindane | methylparaben | mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate | monobutyl phthalate | mono-isobutyl phthalate | musk ketone | musk xylene | nonachlor | octocrylene | octyl dimethyl 4-aminobenzoic acid | o,p'-DDT | oxybenzone | oxychlordane | PCB 180 | pentabrominated diphenyl ether 100 | phantolid | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | propylparaben | Toxaphene | tribromodiphenyl ether 28 Details
46. Samanic C, et al. (2006). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) Although associations between exposure and lung and colon cancer were observed, we did not find clear evidence for an association between dicamba exposure and cancer risk. Dicamba Workers United States Details Colonic Neoplasms | Lung Neoplasms
47. Hahn S, et al. (2010). Exposure to biocides from household products may contribute to induction of sensitization in the population. Disinfectants Germany 1,2-benzisothiazoline-3-one | 2-Propanol | Benzalkonium Compounds | Benzoates | bronopol | chloroacetamide | Chlorpyrifos | d,d-T80-prallethrin | Dichlorvos | Formaldehyde | Glutaral | Hydrogen Peroxide | phenoxyethanol | phoxim | picaridin | Sodium Hypochlorite | Thiazoles | trichloroisocyanuric acid | Triclosan | troclosene Details
48. Rudel RA, et al. (2003). This study provides a basis for prioritizing toxicology and exposure research for individual endocrine-disrupting compounds and mixtures and provides new tools for exposure assessment in health studies. Endocrine Disruptors United States air, indoor | dust 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3-dibromopropanol | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,4-dichlorophenol | 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone | 2,5,2',5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl | 2-phenylphenol | 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol | 4-cumylphenol | 4-nitrophenol | 4-nonylphenol | 4-octylphenol | 4-phenylphenol | alachlor | anthracene | bendiocarb | benz(a)anthracene | Benzo(a)pyrene | bisphenol A | butylbenzyl phthalate | butylparaben | butylphen | Carbaryl | Chlordan | Chlorpyrifos | cypermethrin | DDT | Diazinon | Dibutyl Phthalate | Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | Dicofol | dicyclohexyl phthalate | Dieldrin | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | diethyl phthalate | diisobutyl phthalate | di-n-hexyl phthalate | di-n-propylphthalate | dioctyl adipate | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | Heptachlor | Lindane | Malathion | Methoxychlor | methylparaben | Methyl Parathion | pentabromodiphenyl ether | Pentachlorophenol | Permethrin | Piperonyl Butoxide | prometone | Propoxur | pyrene | tetrachloroisophthalonitrile | Trifluralin Details
49. Ihde ES, et al. (2015). Endocrine disrupting environmental chemicals were detected in all children in the study, with measurable levels of 4-nonylphenol in nearly one third of subjects; this is the first known published study of 4-nonylphenol levels in American children; no associations were found between the urine levels of these chemicals tested and estrogen metabolites. Endocrine Disruptors Children United States urine 16-hydroxyestrone | 2-hydroxyestradiol | 2-hydroxyestrone | 2-methoxyestrone | 4-hydroxyestrone-4-methyl ether | 4-hydroxyestrone | 4-nonylphenol | bisphenol A | butylparaben | Estrogens | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | methylparaben | mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate | mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate | mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate | monoethyl phthalate | propylparaben | Triclosan Details estrogen metabolic process
50. Dodson RE, et al. (2012). This is the first report on flame retardant tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate in house dust, and concentrations of Firemaster 550 components were higher in 2011 than 2006, consistent with its use as a PentaBDE replacement; our results highlight the evolving nature of flame retardant exposures and suggest that manufacturers continue to use hazardous chemicals and replace chemicals-of-concern with chemicals with uncharacterized toxicity. Environmental Pollutants | Firemaster 550 | Flame Retardants United States dust, house 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane | 2,2',3,3',4,4',6,6'-octabromodiphenyl ether | 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptabromodiphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexabromobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate | 2-ethylhexyldiphenylphosphate | DDT | decabromobiphenyl ether | decabromodiphenyl ethane | dechlorane plus | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | hexabrominated diphenyl ether 153 | hexabromobenzene | hexabromocyclododecane | hexabromodiphenyl ether 154 | hexachlorocyclopentadienyl-dibromocyclooctane | nonachlor | PCB 180 | pentabrominated diphenyl ether 100 | pentabromodiphenyl ether | tetrabromobisphenol A | tribromodiphenyl ether 28 | tributyl phosphate | triethyl phosphate | triphenyl phosphate | tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate | tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate | tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate | tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate | tris(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate | tris(chloroethyl)phosphate | Tritolyl Phosphates Details
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