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Chemical Carbohydrates

These are exposure studies associated with the chemical and all of its children.

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1–28 of 28 results.
  Reference Associated Study Title Author's Summary Study Factors Stressor Receptors Country Medium Exposure Marker Measurements Outcome
1. Bergauff MA, et al. (2010). These studies suggest that diet is a major factor in determining urinary levoglucosan levels and recent dietary history needs to be taken into account for future work involving levoglucosan as a biomarker of wood smoke exposure. diet 1,6-anhydro-beta-glucopyranose | Particulate Matter Study subjects United States urine 1,6-anhydro-beta-glucopyranose | Particulate Matter Details
2. Pronk A, et al. (2006). The aim of this study was to assess which compounds contribute to isocyanate exposure in car body repair shops and industrial painting companies, and to identify tasks with a high risk of isocyanate exposure. 1,6-hexamethyleneaminoisocyanate | 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate | 2,6-diisocyanatotoluene | 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate | Biuret | ethyl isocyanate | Isocyanates | isophorone diisocyanate | methyl isocyanate | phenyl isocyanate | Toluene 2,4-Diisocyanate Workers Netherlands 1,6-hexamethyleneaminoisocyanate | 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate | 2,6-diisocyanatotoluene | 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate | Biuret | ethyl isocyanate | Isocyanates | isophorone diisocyanate | methyl isocyanate | phenyl isocyanate | Toluene 2,4-Diisocyanate Details
3. Hofmann JN, et al. (2013). Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS) In this nested case-control study among participants in the Shanghai Women's Health Study, we did not find evidence of an association between urinary concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide, an established marker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure, and risk of colorectal cancer. 1-hydroxypyrene-glucuronide | Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Controls for disease:Colorectal Neoplasms | Subjects with disease:Colorectal Neoplasms | Study subjects China urine 1-hydroxypyrene-glucuronide Details Colorectal Neoplasms
4. Ayotte P, et al. (2005). In summary, we found no relation between biomarkers of organochlorine exposure and markers of hepatic enzyme induction in this highly exposed group of fish eaters from the Lower North Shore of the St. Lawrence River. Our results suggest that smoking induces liver CYP1A2 activity, which in turn alters porphyrin metabolism and increases the biotransformation of mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls. tobacco 2,2',3,3',4,4',5-heptachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | Hexachlorobenzene | Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated | Mirex | nonachlor | oxychlordane | PCB 180 | Polychlorinated Biphenyls Study subjects Canada plasma | urine 2,2',3,3',4,4',5-heptachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | Coproporphyrins | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | Glucaric Acid | Hexachlorobenzene | Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated | Mirex | nonachlor | oxychlordane | PCB 180 | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | Uroporphyrins Details enzyme activator activity
5. Patel CJ, et al. (2012). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) We screened for correlation between environmental factors and lipid levels, utilizing four independent surveys with information on 188 environmental factors from the Centers of Disease Control, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, collected between 1999 and 2006. age | body mass index | race | sex | socioeconomic status 2,2',3,3',4,4',5-heptachlorobiphenyl | 2,3-bis(3'-hydroxybenzyl)butyrolactone | 2,4,4',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl | 2-hydroxyfluorene | alpha-Tocopherol | Ascorbic Acid | beta Carotene | Cotinine | Cryptoxanthins | Fluorenes | Folic Acid | gamma-Tocopherol | Heptachlor Epoxide | Iron | Lycopene | Mercury | nonachlor | oxychlordane | retinol palmitate | retinyl stearate | Vitamin A | Vitamin D Study subjects United States Details cholesterol metabolic process | triglyceride metabolic process
6. Farsalinos KE, et al. (2015). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nicotine delivery potential of a new-generation electronic cigarette (EC) device in a group of smokers with no previous experience in EC use compared to a group of experienced vapers, and to examine the association between nicotine absorption and puffing topography. tobacco 2-butenal | 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone | Acetaldehyde | Aldehydes | Arsenic | Chromium | Diacetyl | diethylene glycol | Formaldehyde | Glycerol | Lead | Metals, Heavy | Nickel | Nicotine | Nitrosamines | N'-nitrosonornicotine | Propylene Glycol Study subjects Greece e-cigarette, liquid | plasma 2-butenal | 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone | Acetaldehyde | Aldehydes | Arsenic | Chromium | Diacetyl | diethylene glycol | Formaldehyde | Glycerol | Lead | Metals, Heavy | Nickel | Nicotine | Nitrosamines | N'-nitrosonornicotine | Propylene Glycol Details
7. Peng C, et al. (2016). Normative Aging Study (NAS) Among nondiabetics, short and medium-term exposures to PM2.5 particulate matter were associated with higher fasting blood glucose levels, and part of this association was mediated by ICAM1 gene promoter methylation. Air Pollutants | Particulate Matter Controls for disease:Diabetes Mellitus United States air, ambient | blood | blood buffy coat Blood Glucose | ICAM1 | Particulate Matter Details glucose homeostasis
8. Adetona O, et al. (2017). In this study, we assessed occupational exposure to wildland fire smoke in wildland firefighters by measuring the urinary concentrations of hydroxylated metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; our results suggest that hydroxylated PAHs (especially 4-hydroxyphenanthrene) may be useful biomarkers of wildland fire smoke exposure. Air Pollutants, Occupational | Smoke Workers United States air, ambient | urine 1,6-anhydro-beta-glucopyranose | 1-hydroxyphenanthrene | 1-hydroxypyrene | 1-naphthol | 2-hydroxyfluorene | 2-naphthol | 4-hydroxyphenanthrene | Carbon Monoxide | Particulate Matter | Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Details
9. Adgent MA, et al. (2015). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Antibiotics, but not triclosan, are negatively associated with urinary enterolactone; further study of triclosan exposure and enterolactone production may be needed to better understand positive associations among women. age | body mass index | diet | race | sex | socioeconomic status Anti-Bacterial Agents | Lincomycin | Macrolides | Quinolones | Sulfonamides | Triclosan Study subjects United States urine 2,3-bis(3'-hydroxybenzyl)butyrolactone | Triclosan Details
10. Zablotska LB, et al. (2008). Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) Intakes of B-vitamins and antioxidants, at doses greater than the current recommended daily amounts for the country, may reduce the risk of arsenic-related skin lesions in Bangladesh. age | body mass index | sex | socioeconomic status Arsenic | Ascorbic Acid | Folic Acid | Pyridoxine | Riboflavin | Vitamin A | Vitamin E Study subjects Bangladesh Details Skin Ulcer
11. Pankow JF, et al. (2017). We investigated formation of benzene (an important human carcinogen) from e-cigarette fluids containing propylene glycol (PG), glycerol (GL), benzoic acid, the flavor chemical benzaldehyde, and nicotine. benzaldehyde | Benzene | Benzoic Acid | Glycerol | Nicotine | Propylene Glycol | Tobacco Smoke Pollution United States e-cigarette, liquid | e-cigarette, vapor Benzene | Benzoic Acid | Nicotine | Particulate Matter Details Neoplasms
12. Liu L, et al. (2017). In an experimental situation, ambient coarse particulate matter (and its biological constituents of endotoxin and beta-1,3-D-glucan) may influence neural biomarker levels that reflect perturbations of blood-brain barrier integrity and systemic stress response in volunteers. beta-1,3-D-glucan | Endotoxins | Particulate Matter Study subjects Canada blood | urine Hydrocortisone | S100B | UCHL1 | Vanilmandelic Acid Details
13. Maheswaran D, et al. (2014). Study of Asthma, Genes, and Environment (SAGE) This community-based follow-up assessment of 422 Canadian children revealed that beta-glucan exposure in the home at age 7-10 was associated with asthma that persisted into adolescence. beta-Glucans | Dust Study subjects Canada dust beta-Glucans Details Asthma | Bronchial Hyperreactivity
14. Gerona RR, et al. (2016). The high levels of urine bisphenol A analytes found in our study may be attributable to the low-income status and/or our direct analytic method (which yields a more complete BPA evaluation); we observed near-universal exposure among pregnant women, as well as substantial variability in metabolic clearance, and our results are consistent with studies showing thermal paper receipts to be an important source of exposure. socioeconomic status bisphenol A Pregnant females United States urine bisphenol A | bisphenol A glucuronide Details
15. Khan A, et al. (2017). Ewha Birth & Growth Cohort Study We conducted a high-resolution metabolomics study and detected elevated metabolites of steroidogenesis and amino acid metabolism in preadolescent female children with high urinary bisphenol A levels. sex bisphenol A Children Korea, Republic of urine 22-hydroxycholesterol | 3-methoxytyramine | aerobactin | Androstenedione | anthranilic acid | bisphenol A | Carnitine | Cholesterol | Corticosterone | cortolone | crotonyl-coenzyme A | Cytidine Monophosphate N-Acetylneuraminic Acid | cytidine monophosphate-N-glycoloylneuraminic acid | estrone sulfate | fructose-6-phosphate | glucosaminic acid | Hydrocortisone | isocaproaldehyde | Malonyl Coenzyme A | N-acetylmuramic acid | N-acetylserotonin | phenylacetylglycine | Pregnanediol | Progesterone | testosterone glucuronate Details regulation of cellular amino acid metabolic process | regulation of steroid biosynthetic process
16. Kim EH, et al. (2017). Our results suggest that exposure to phthalates and bisphenol A is associated with aggravation of atopic dermatitis symptoms in children. age bisphenol A | Phthalic Acids Children | Subjects with disease:Dermatitis, Atopic Korea, Republic of urine bisphenol A glucuronide | mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate | mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate | monobutyl phthalate Details Dermatitis, Atopic
17. Arbuckle TE, et al. (2015). Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study We report national-level data on urinary concentrations of free and conjugated forms of bisphenol A and triclosan in pregnant women and suggest that maternal characteristics predicting elevated urinary concentrations of these phenols largely act in opposite directions. age | socioeconomic status | tobacco bisphenol A | Triclosan Pregnant females Canada urine bisphenol A | bisphenol A disulfate | bisphenol A glucuronide | Triclosan Details
18. Kelishadi R, et al. (2013). Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Noncommunicable disease (CASPIAN) Cadmium levels were considerably high in adolescents with and without metabolic syndrome, and levels had positive but nonsignificant association with some cardiometabolic risk factors and liver enzymes; the associations did not reach statistical significance, perhaps due to high levels of cadmium in both groups or because of the young age of participants. Cadmium Children | Controls for disease:Metabolic Syndrome | Subjects with disease:Metabolic Syndrome Iran, Islamic Republic of blood | serum Blood Glucose | Cadmium | Cholesterol, HDL | Cholesterol, LDL | GOT1 | GPT | Triglycerides Details Metabolic Syndrome
19. Lin VY, et al. (2018). Here, we sought to determine if e-cigs are as safe as the general populace perceives, in regards to the deleterious effects of smoking on the ion transport environment of airway epithelia that are associated with chronic bronchitis. tobacco Citric Acid | Glycerol | Nicotine United States e-cigarette, vapor Acrolein Details Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive | active ion transmembrane transporter activity
20. Liang S, et al. (2018). In summary, results from this study suggested that TLR2 up-regulation and TLR3 down-regulation occur in doxorubicin-treated patients who develop heart dysfunction. This may suggest a predictive role of TLR2-TLR3 imbalance in doxorubicin-induced heart failure. Doxorubicin Subjects with disease:Heart Failure | Subjects with disease:Hematologic Neoplasms China blood TLR2 | TLR3 Details gene expression
21. Antoniewicz L, et al. (2016). In healthy volunteers, ten puffs of e-cigarette vapor inhalation caused an increase in endothelial progenitor cells. Ethanol | Glycerol | Nicotine | Propylene Glycol | Tobacco Smoke Pollution Study subjects Sweden breath | plasma Cotinine | Nitric Oxide Details stem cell population maintenance
22. Valentine GW, et al. (2016). Brief use of a widely available type of e-cigarette containing an e-liquid purchased from an Internet vendor can negatively impact psychomotor performance and in some instances, produce detectable levels of a urine alcohol metabolite. Ethanol | Nicotine Study subjects United States urine ethyl glucuronide Details psychomotor behavior
23. Son Y, et al. (2018). This study examined the impact of e-liquid composition, e-cigarette device power output, and vaping topography on nicotine and nicotyrine concentrations under real-world vaping patterns. Glycerol | Nicotine | Propylene Glycol Study subjects United States e-cigarette, vapor alpha-nicotyrine | Nicotine Details
24. Kosmider L, et al. (2014). Our findings show that vapors generated from various commercial and reference solutions expose electronic cigarette users to toxic carbonyls, including the carcinogens formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. tobacco Glycerol | Propylene Glycol Poland e-cigarette, vapor 2-butenal | 3-methylbenzaldehyde | Acetaldehyde | Acetone | benzaldehyde | butyraldehyde | Formaldehyde | isovalerylaldehyde Details
25. He K, et al. (2013). Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study Our results provide longitudinal human data suggesting that people with high mercury exposure in young adulthood may have elevated risk of diabetes later in life. Mercury Study subjects United States nail, toe | plasma Blood Glucose | INS | Mercury Details Diabetes Mellitus | regulation of insulin secretion involved in cellular response to glucose stimulus
26. Peters KO, et al. (2017). Center for Childhood Asthma in the Urban Environment (CCAUE) Time spent in non-smoking homes was associated with significantly decreased urine 1-hydroxypyrene-glucuronide (1-OHPG), and secondhand smoke exposures increased these levels; time spent outdoors was associated with increased urinary 1-OHPG concentrations in boys only; our results suggest that secondhand smoke and ambient outdoor air pollution contribute to internal dose of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in inner city children. sex | tobacco Particulate Matter | Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons | Tobacco Smoke Pollution Children United States air, indoor | urine 1-hydroxypyrene-glucuronide | Nicotine | Particulate Matter Details
27. Migliaccio CT, et al. (2009). These results demonstrate that levoglucosan in the lungs is detectable in the urine of both mice and humans and that it is a good candidate as a biomarker of exposure to biomass smoke. Particulate Matter | Tobacco Smoke Pollution Children United States air | urine 1,6-anhydro-beta-glucopyranose | Cotinine | Particulate Matter Details
28. Yoon HS, et al. (2012). Using the urinary biomarkers 1-hydroxypyrene-glucuronide (1-OHPG), 2-naphthol, and malondialdehyde (MDA), we evaluated seasonal and regional variations in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and oxidative stress among Korean adults and children. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons | Tobacco Smoke Pollution Children | Study subjects Korea, Republic of urine 1-hydroxypyrene-glucuronide | 2-naphthol | Malondialdehyde Details
1–28 of 28 results.