These are exposure studies associated with the chemical and all of its children.
|Reference||Associated Study Title||Author's Summary||Study Factors||Stressor||Receptors||Country||Medium||Exposure Marker||Measurements||Outcome|
|1.||Farsalinos KE, et al. (2015).||The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nicotine delivery potential of a new-generation electronic cigarette (EC) device in a group of smokers with no previous experience in EC use compared to a group of experienced vapers, and to examine the association between nicotine absorption and puffing topography.||tobacco||2-butenal
||Study subjects||Greece||e-cigarette, liquid | plasma||2-butenal
|2.||Pankow JF, et al. (2017).||We investigated formation of benzene (an important human carcinogen) from e-cigarette fluids containing propylene glycol (PG), glycerol (GL), benzoic acid, the flavor chemical benzaldehyde, and nicotine.||benzaldehyde | Benzene | Benzoic Acid | Glycerol | Nicotine | Propylene Glycol | Tobacco Smoke Pollution||United States||e-cigarette, liquid | e-cigarette, vapor||Benzene | Benzoic Acid | Nicotine | Particulate Matter||Details||Neoplasms|
|3.||Lin VY, et al. (2018).||Here, we sought to determine if e-cigs are as safe as the general populace perceives, in regards to the deleterious effects of smoking on the ion transport environment of airway epithelia that are associated with chronic bronchitis.||tobacco||Citric Acid | Glycerol | Nicotine||United States||e-cigarette, vapor||Acrolein||Details||Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive | active ion transmembrane transporter activity|
|4.||Antoniewicz L, et al. (2016).||In healthy volunteers, ten puffs of e-cigarette vapor inhalation caused an increase in endothelial progenitor cells.||Ethanol | Glycerol | Nicotine | Propylene Glycol | Tobacco Smoke Pollution||Study subjects||Sweden||breath | plasma||Cotinine | Nitric Oxide||Details||stem cell population maintenance|
|5.||Son Y, et al. (2018).||This study examined the impact of e-liquid composition, e-cigarette device power output, and vaping topography on nicotine and nicotyrine concentrations under real-world vaping patterns.||Glycerol | Nicotine | Propylene Glycol||Study subjects||United States||e-cigarette, vapor||alpha-nicotyrine | Nicotine||Details|