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Chemical Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists

These are exposure studies associated with the chemical and all of its children.

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1–32 of 32 results.
  Reference Associated Study Title Author's Summary Study Factors Stressor Receptors Country Medium Exposure Marker Measurements Outcome
1. Vested A, et al. (2014). The objective of this study was to investigate whether maternal serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) during pregnancy are associated with son's semen quality and reproductive hormone levels. 2,2',3,3',4,4',5-heptachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | PCB 180 | Polychlorinated Biphenyls Mothers | Study subjects Denmark semen | serum 2,2',3,3',4,4',5-heptachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | Estradiol | FSHB | INHBB | LHB | PCB 180 | SHBG | Testosterone Details spermatogenesis | sperm motility
2. Herbstman JB, et al. (2008). Prenatal polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and poly-brominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposures were associated with reduced total thyroxine and free thyroxine levels among infants born by spontaneous, unassisted vaginal delivery. Intrapartum stress associated with delivery mode may mask hormonal effects of PCBs and PBDEs. 2,2',3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabrominated diphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,4',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers | PCB 180 | pentabromodiphenyl ether | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | Thyrotropin | Thyroxine Infants or newborns United States blood | blood, cord 2,2',3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabrominated diphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,4',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | PCB 180 | pentabromodiphenyl ether | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | Thyrotropin | Thyroxine Details thyroid hormone metabolic process
3. Dallaire R, et al. (2009). Exposure to several polyhalogenated compounds was associated with modifications of the thyroid parameters in adult Inuit, mainly by reducing total triiodothyronine and thyroxine-binding globulin circulating concentrations. 2,2',3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,4',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | beta-hexachlorocyclohexane | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | Dioxins | Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers | Hexachlorobenzene | Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated | PCB 180 | Pentachlorophenol | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | Polybrominated Biphenyls | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | Selenium Study subjects Canada blood | plasma | serum 2,2',3,3',4,4',5-heptachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,4',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | beta-hexachlorocyclohexane | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | Dioxins | hexabrominated diphenyl ether 153 | Hexachlorobenzene | PCB 180 | Pentachlorophenol | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | Selenium | SERPINA7 | Thyroxine | Triiodothyronine | TSHB Details regulation of thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion | thyroid hormone metabolic process
4. Makey CM, et al. (2016). Our findings suggest that polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure might decrease the binding of thyroxine (T4) to serum T4 binding proteins. 2,2',4,4',5-brominated diphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers | hexabrominated diphenyl ether 153 | pentabrominated diphenyl ether 100 | perchlorate | thiocyanate | Thyroxine | tribromodiphenyl ether 28 Workers United States serum | urine 2,2',4,4',5-brominated diphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers | hexabrominated diphenyl ether 153 | Iodine | Lipids | pentabrominated diphenyl ether 100 | perchlorate | thiocyanate | Thyroxine | tribromodiphenyl ether 28 | Triiodothyronine | TSHB Details thyroid hormone metabolic process
5. Miranda ML, et al. (2015). Children's Environmental Health Initiative Healthy Pregnancy, Healthy Baby Our data suggest a potential association between maternal polybrominated diphenyl ether levels and decreased infant head circumference (however, this association was attenuated after control for maternal risk factors); confirmatory studies are needed in larger sample sizes, and a mediating role of thyroid hormones was not apparent. 2,2',4,4',5-brominated diphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers | hexabrominated diphenyl ether 153 | Polybrominated Biphenyls Infants or newborns | Pregnant females United States serum 2,2',4,4',5-brominated diphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2,4,6-tribromophenol | 6-OH-BDE-47 | hexabrominated diphenyl ether 153 | hexabromodiphenyl ether 154 | pentabrominated diphenyl ether 100 | Thyroxine | tribromodiphenyl ether 28 | Triiodothyronine | TSHB Details Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects | head development
6. Leijs MM, et al. (2012). Thyroid hormone metabolism seems to have been influenced by current background levels of the common environmental contaminants dioxin like-polychlorinated biphenyls and BDE-99 (2,2',4,4',5-brominated diphenyl ether). 2,2',4,4',5-brominated diphenyl ether | Polychlorinated Biphenyls Study subjects Netherlands serum Triiodothyronine Details thyroid hormone metabolic process
7. Fénichel P, et al. (2012). The presence of unconjugated bisphenol A in all cord blood samples suggests placental transfer and fetal exposure. Androstenedione | bisphenol A | Estradiol | Estriol | Estrone | Testosterone Controls for disease:Cryptorchidism | Subjects with disease:Cryptorchidism | Infants or newborns France blood, cord Androstenedione | bisphenol A | Estradiol | Estriol | Estrone | Testosterone Details
8. Broberg K, et al. (2011). Exposure to lithium via drinking water and other environmental sources may affect thyroid function, consistent with known side effects of medical treatment with lithium. diet Arsenic | Boron | Cesium | Dextrothyroxine | Iodine | Lithium | Selenium Study subjects Argentina plasma | urine Arsenic | Boron | Cesium | Dextrothyroxine | Iodine | Lithium | Selenium Details
9. Harari F, et al. (2015). The study reports that lithium exposure and cesium exposure through drinking water may impair thyroid function; impaired thyroid function during pregnancy may be detrimental for fetal development. diet Arsenic | Cesium | Lithium Pregnant females Argentina blood | serum | urine | water, drinking Arsenic | Cesium | Lithium | Triiodothyronine | TSHB | TTR Details thyroid hormone metabolic process
10. Liu L, et al. (2017). In an experimental situation, ambient coarse particulate matter (and its biological constituents of endotoxin and beta-1,3-D-glucan) may influence neural biomarker levels that reflect perturbations of blood-brain barrier integrity and systemic stress response in volunteers. beta-1,3-D-glucan | Endotoxins | Particulate Matter Study subjects Canada blood | urine Hydrocortisone | S100B | UCHL1 | Vanilmandelic Acid Details
11. Lassen TH, et al. (2014). We found that 98% of young men from the general population had detectable urinary levels of bisphenol A, and this was associated with altered levels of reproductive hormones and decreased motile spermatozoa. bisphenol A Study subjects Denmark serum | urine bisphenol A | Estradiol | LHB | Testosterone Details estradiol secretion | luteinizing hormone secretion | sperm motility | testosterone biosynthetic process | testosterone secretion
12. Omoruyi IM, et al. (2014). In this study, we investigated the presence of mutagens and chemicals exhibiting estrogenic activity in the daily diet of Nigerians, using in vitro assays. bisphenol A | Estradiol Nigeria water bisphenol A | Estradiol Details
13. Scinicariello F, et al. (2016). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) We examined the association of bisphenol A (BPA), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), triclosan (TCS), and parabens with serum total testosterone (TT) levels in child and adolescent participants (ages 6-19 years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012. sex bisphenol A | oxybenzone | Parabens | Triclosan Children United States serum | urine bisphenol A | Cotinine | Creatinine | oxybenzone | Parabens | Testosterone | Triclosan Details testosterone biosynthetic process
14. Ajayi OO, et al. (2012). Results suggest that elevated serum heavy metals (cadmium and lead) and reduction of essential micronutrients (zinc, copper and vitamin E) may contribute to recurrent spontaneous abortion. Cadmium | Chromium | Copper | Iron | Lead | Magnesium | Manganese | Progesterone | Selenium | Tocopherols | Zinc Controls for disease:Abortion, Spontaneous | Subjects with disease:Abortion, Spontaneous | Pregnant females Nigeria serum Cadmium | Chromium | Copper | Iron | Lead | Magnesium | Manganese | Progesterone | Selenium | Tocopherols | Zinc Details
15. Tornhammar P, et al. (2014). Our objective was to assess the link between season of birth, neonatal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, and adult cardiovascular disease; we report higher neonatal 25(OH)D3 associated with higher levels of cholesterol (in women), fasting insulin, and triglyceride, and with a higher risk of overweight at 35 years of age, but not with other adult cardiovascular disease risk factors. sex Calcifediol | Vitamin D Infants or newborns | Study subjects Sweden blood | serum Calcifediol | Cholesterol | Insulin | Triglycerides Details Obesity | Weight Gain | cholesterol homeostasis | regulation of insulin secretion | triglyceride homeostasis
16. Ihde ES, et al. (2015). Endocrine disrupting environmental chemicals were detected in all children in the study, with measurable levels of 4-nonylphenol in nearly one third of subjects; this is the first known published study of 4-nonylphenol levels in American children; no associations were found between the urine levels of these chemicals tested and estrogen metabolites. Endocrine Disruptors Children United States urine 16-hydroxyestrone | 2-hydroxyestradiol | 2-hydroxyestrone | 2-methoxyestrone | 4-hydroxyestrone-4-methyl ether | 4-hydroxyestrone | 4-nonylphenol | bisphenol A | butylparaben | Estrogens | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | methylparaben | mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate | mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate | mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate | monoethyl phthalate | propylparaben | Triclosan Details estrogen metabolic process
17. Pastor-Barriuso R, et al. (2016). Multi-case Control Cancer Study in Spain (MCC-Spain) This is the first study to show a strong positive association between serum total xenoestrogen burden and breast cancer risk, highlighting the importance of evaluating xenoestrogen mixtures, rather than single compounds, when studying hormone-related cancers. Endocrine Disruptors Controls for disease:Breast Neoplasms | Subjects with disease:Breast Neoplasms Spain serum 2,2',3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | Estrogens | Hexachlorobenzene | PCB 180 Details Breast Neoplasms
18. Berg V, et al. (2017). Northern Norway Mother-and-Child Contaminant Cohort Study (MISA) The present results suggest that background exposures to persistent organic pollutants can alter maternal thyroid homeostasis. Environmental Pollutants | Hexachlorobenzene | nonachlor | perfluorodecanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluoroundecanoic acid | Pesticides | Polychlorinated Biphenyls Pregnant females Norway serum 2,2',3,3',4,4',5-heptachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',3,4',5,5',6-heptachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | Hexachlorobenzene | nonachlor | PCB 180 | perfluorodecanoic acid | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | perfluoroundecanoic acid | Thyroxine | Triiodothyronine | TSHB Details thyroid hormone generation | thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion
19. Caldwell DJ, et al. (2010). The consistently large margins of exposure and margins of safety strongly suggest that prescribed and total estrogens that may potentially be present in drinking water in the United States are not causing adverse effects in residents, including sensitive subpopulations. Estrogens Children | Study subjects United States water, drinking Estradiol | Estriol | Estrogens | Estrone | Ethinyl Estradiol Details
20. Lopez-Espinosa MJ, et al. (2016). C8 Health Project (C8HP) We found serum perfluoroalkyl substances concentrations to be associated with lower levels of sex hormones and IGF-1 in children aged 6-9 years. Fluorocarbons | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Children United States serum Estradiol | IGF1 | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | Testosterone Details estradiol secretion | gene expression | testosterone secretion
21. Goudarzi H, et al. (2017). Sapporo Cohort, Hokkaido Study on Environment and Child Health Our results indicate that prenatal exposure to perfluorinated chemicals is significantly associated with glucocorticoid and dehydroepiandrosterone levels in cord blood. tobacco Fluorocarbons | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Fetuses | Infants or newborns | Pregnant females Japan blood, cord | serum Androstenedione | Cortisone | Dehydroepiandrosterone | Hydrocortisone | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Details cortisol secretion | dehydroepiandrosterone secretion
22. Shrestha S, et al. (2015). In the current study of older residents of the upper Hudson River communities, we detected positive associations between serum perfluorooctane sulfonate and free thyroxine and total thyroxine. age Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | Polychlorinated Biphenyls Study subjects United States serum Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | Thyroxine | Triiodothyronine | TSHB Details thyroid hormone metabolic process
23. Webster GM, et al. (2016). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) We found evidence of perfluoroalkyl acids-associated thyroid disruption in a subset of U.S. adults with high thyroid peroxidase antibody (a marker of autoimmune hypothyroidism) and low iodine status, who may represent a vulnerable subgroup. sex hexadecafluoro-nonanoic acid | Iodine | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Study subjects United States serum | urine hexadecafluoro-nonanoic acid | Iodine | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | Thyrotropin | Thyroxine | Triiodothyronine Details thyroid hormone metabolic process
24. Giwercman AH, et al. (2006). Gonadotropin levels and sex hormone-binding globulin seem to be affected by persistent organohalogen pollutant exposure, but the pattern of endocrine response is the subject of considerable geographic variation. Hydrocarbons, Halogenated Study subjects Greenland|Poland|
Sweden|Ukraine
serum 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | Estradiol | FSHB | INHBB | LHB | Testosterone Details
25. Steinmaus C, et al. (2016). Project Baby's Breath (PBB) Our results suggest that environmental perchlorate exposures may affect thyroid hormone production during pregnancy. Iodides | Nitrates | perchlorate | thiocyanate Pregnant females United States serum | urine Iodides | Nitrates | perchlorate | thiocyanate | Thyroxine | TSHB Details regulation of thyroid hormone generation
26. Cao Y, et al. (2010). Study of Estrogen Activity and Development (SEAD) The association of perchlorate exposure with increased urinary thyroid-stimulating hormone in infants with low urinary iodide is consistent with previous findings. Higher thiocyanate and nitrate exposure were also associated with higher thyroid-stimulating hormone in infants. Iodides | Nitrates | perchlorate | thiocyanate Infants or newborns United States blood | urine Iodides | Nitrates | perchlorate | thiocyanate | Thyroxine | TSHB Details hormone secretion | thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion
27. Johns LE, et al. (2016). LifeCodes Prospective Birth Cohort Overall, the results from our analyses support previous reports showing the potential for environmental phthalate exposure to disturb circulating levels of thyroid hormones in pregnant women. mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate | monoethyl phthalate | phthalic acid Pregnant females United States plasma | urine Diethylhexyl Phthalate | mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate | mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate | mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate | mono-benzyl phthalate | monobutyl phthalate | monoethyl phthalate | mono-isobutyl phthalate | phthalic acid | Thyroid Hormones | Thyrotropin | Thyroxine | Triiodothyronine Details thyroid hormone metabolic process
28. Sancini A, et al. (2014). The correlation between the values of urinary nickel and plasma testosterone was found negative; we suggest that occupational exposure to low doses of nickel present in the urban environment is able to influence some lines of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in exposed workers. Nickel Workers Italy air, personal | plasma | urine Nickel | Testosterone Details
29. Janssen BG, et al. (2016). ENVIRonmental influence ON early AGEing (ENVIRONAGE) In our study population of normal healthy pregnancies, third trimester exposure to fine particle air pollution (PM2.5) was associated with differences in fetal thyroid hormone levels that may contribute to reduced birth weight. Particulate Matter Fetuses | Infants or newborns | Pregnant females Belgium blood, cord | plasma Particulate Matter | Thyroxine | Triiodothyronine | TSHB Details Birth Weight | thyroid hormone metabolic process
30. Toft G, et al. (2016). Environmental perfluorooctane sulfonate exposure was associated with steroid hormone and INSL3 concentrations in amniotic fluid, but was not associated with cryptorchidism or hypospadias in our study population. perfluorooctane sulfonic acid Pregnant females Denmark amniotic fluid 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone | Androstenedione | Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate | Hydrocortisone | INSL3 | Progesterone | Testosterone Details Cryptorchidism | Hypospadias | regulation of gene expression | regulation of testosterone biosynthetic process
31. Upson K, et al. (2016). Study of Environment, Lifestyle & Fibroids (SELF) Our observation that women fed soy formula as infants have larger fibroids than unexposed women provides further support for persistent effects of early life phytoestrogen exposure on the uterus. diet Phytoestrogens Study subjects United States Details Leiomyoma
32. Sancini A, et al. (2014). Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (a biomarker for exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) was measured in non-smoker male workers and was related to an increase in plasma estradiol; we believe that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can interact with the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Workers Italy plasma | urine 1-hydroxypyrene | Estradiol Details
1–32 of 32 results.