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Chemical Pyrrolidines

These are exposure studies associated with the chemical and all of its children.

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1–26 of 26 results.
  Reference Associated Study Title Author's Summary Study Factors Stressor Receptors Country Medium Exposure Marker Measurements Outcome
1. Aquilina NJ, et al. (2010). Measurement and Modelling of Air Toxic Concentrations for Health Effect Studies Project (MATCH) The objective of this study was to analyse environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites in urine samples of non-occupationally exposed non-smoker adult subjects and to establish relationships between airborne exposures and urinary concentrations in order to assess the suitability of the studied metabolites as biomarkers of PAH and ETS, study the use of 3-ethenypyridine as ETS tracer, and link ETS scenarios with exposures to carcinogenic PAH and volatile organic compounds. tobacco 1,12-benzoperylene | 1,2,5,6-dibenzanthracene | 1,3-butadiene | 1-hydroxyphenanthrene | 1-hydroxypyrene | 2-hydroxyfluorene | 2-naphthol | 3-vinylpyridine | acenaphthene | acenaphthylene | anthracene | benz(a)anthracene | Benzo(a)pyrene | benzo(b)fluoranthene | benzo(k)fluoranthene | chrysene | coronene | fluoranthene | fluorene | hydroxycotinine | indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene | naphthalene | Nicotine | phenanthrene | Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons | pyrene Study subjects United Kingdom urine 1,12-benzoperylene | 1,2,5,6-dibenzanthracene | 1,3-butadiene | 1-hydroxyphenanthrene | 1-hydroxypyrene | 2-hydroxyfluorene | 2-naphthol | 3-vinylpyridine | acenaphthene | acenaphthylene | anthracene | benz(a)anthracene | Benzo(a)pyrene | benzo(b)fluoranthene | benzo(k)fluoranthene | chrysene | coronene | fluoranthene | fluorene | hydroxycotinine | indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene | naphthalene | Nicotine | phenanthrene | Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons | pyrene Details
2. Woodruff TJ, et al. (2011). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Our analysis of the NHANES pregnancy data shows ubiquitous exposure to multiple chemicals during a sensitive period of fetal development. 1-hydroxypyrene | 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabrominated diphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2-naphthol | 4-dichlorobenzene | Benzene | bisphenol A | Cadmium | Cotinine | DDT | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | diethyl phosphate | dimethyl phosphate | fluoren-9-ol | Hexachlorobenzene | Lead | Mercury | methyl tert-butyl ether | mono-benzyl phthalate | monobutyl phthalate | mono-isobutyl phthalate | O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate | O,O-dimethyl phosphorothionate | oxybenzone | PCB 180 | perchlorate | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | thiophosphoric acid | Toluene | Triclosan Pregnant females | Study subjects United States blood | serum | urine 1-hydroxypyrene | 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabrominated diphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2-naphthol | 4-dichlorobenzene | Benzene | bisphenol A | Cadmium | Cotinine | DDT | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | diethyl phosphate | dimethyl phosphate | fluoren-9-ol | Hexachlorobenzene | Lead | Mercury | methyl tert-butyl ether | mono-benzyl phthalate | monobutyl phthalate | mono-isobutyl phthalate | O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate | O,O-dimethyl phosphorothionate | oxybenzone | PCB 180 | perchlorate | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | thiophosphoric acid | Toluene | Triclosan Details
3. Patel CJ, et al. (2012). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) We screened for correlation between environmental factors and lipid levels, utilizing four independent surveys with information on 188 environmental factors from the Centers of Disease Control, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, collected between 1999 and 2006. age | body mass index | race | sex | socioeconomic status 2,2',3,3',4,4',5-heptachlorobiphenyl | 2,3-bis(3'-hydroxybenzyl)butyrolactone | 2,4,4',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl | 2-hydroxyfluorene | alpha-Tocopherol | Ascorbic Acid | beta Carotene | Cotinine | Cryptoxanthins | Fluorenes | Folic Acid | gamma-Tocopherol | Heptachlor Epoxide | Iron | lycopene | Mercury | nonachlor | oxychlordane | retinol palmitate | retinyl stearate | Vitamin A | Vitamin D Study subjects United States Details cholesterol metabolic process | triglyceride metabolic process
4. Robinson O, et al. (2015). INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) Project In summary, the correlation analysis presented here of multiple environmental exposures among pregnant women provide a first picture of the structure of the exposome during the crucial in utero period. 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptabromodiphenyl ether | 2,2',3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',4,4',5-brominated diphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | Antimony | Arsenic | Benzene | beta-hexachlorocyclohexane | bisphenol A | Cadmium | Cesium | Chloroform | Cobalt | Copper | Cotinine | decabromobiphenyl ether | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | hexabrominated diphenyl ether 153 | hexabromodiphenyl ether 154 | Hexachlorobenzene | Lead | Mercury | Molybdenum | mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate | mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate | mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate | mono-benzyl phthalate | monobutyl phthalate | monoethyl phthalate | mono-isobutyl phthalate | Nickel | Nitric Oxide | Nitrogen Dioxide | Nitrogen Oxides | Particulate Matter | PCB 180 | pentabrominated diphenyl ether 100 | pentabromodiphenyl ether | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | Pesticides | Phthalic Acids | Selenium | Thallium | Tobacco Smoke Pollution | Trihalomethanes | Zinc Pregnant females Spain air | blood, cord | colostrum | serum | urine | water 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptabromodiphenyl ether | 2,2',3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',4,4',5-brominated diphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | Antimony | Arsenic | Benzene | beta-hexachlorocyclohexane | bisphenol A | Cadmium | Cesium | Chloroform | Cobalt | Copper | Cotinine | decabromobiphenyl ether | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | hexabrominated diphenyl ether 153 | hexabromodiphenyl ether 154 | Hexachlorobenzene | Lead | Mercury | Molybdenum | mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate | mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate | mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate | mono-benzyl phthalate | monobutyl phthalate | monoethyl phthalate | mono-isobutyl phthalate | Nickel | Nitric Oxide | Nitrogen Dioxide | Nitrogen Oxides | Particulate Matter | PCB 180 | pentabrominated diphenyl ether 100 | pentabromodiphenyl ether | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | Pesticides | Phthalic Acids | Selenium | Thallium | Tobacco Smoke Pollution | Trihalomethanes | Zinc Details
5. Adgent MA, et al. (2015). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Antibiotics, but not triclosan, are negatively associated with urinary enterolactone; further study of triclosan exposure and enterolactone production may be needed to better understand positive associations among women. age | body mass index | diet | race | sex | socioeconomic status Anti-Bacterial Agents | Lincomycin | Macrolides | Quinolones | Sulfonamides | Triclosan Study subjects United States urine 2,3-bis(3'-hydroxybenzyl)butyrolactone | Triclosan Details
6. Navas-Acien A, et al. (2011). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Seafood intake was a major determinant of increased urine concentrations of total arsenic, dimethylarsinate, arsenobetaine and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine in the US population. diet Arsenic | arsenobetaine | Cacodylic Acid | Cotinine | Mercury Study subjects United States blood | serum | urine Arsenic | arsenobetaine | Cacodylic Acid | Cotinine | Mercury Details
7. Scinicariello F, et al. (2016). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) We examined the association of bisphenol A (BPA), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), triclosan (TCS), and parabens with serum total testosterone (TT) levels in child and adolescent participants (ages 6-19 years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012. sex bisphenol A | oxybenzone | Parabens | Triclosan Children United States serum | urine bisphenol A | Cotinine | Creatinine | oxybenzone | Parabens | Testosterone | Triclosan Details testosterone biosynthetic process
8. Sanders AP, et al. (2014). Children's Environmental Health Initiative Healthy Pregnancy, Healthy Baby This study provides evidence for distinct patterns of DNA methylation in fetal and maternal DNA associated with exposure to cadmium. Cadmium | Cotinine Infants or newborns | Pregnant females United States blood | serum | serum, cord Cadmium | Cotinine Details DNA methylation on cytosine within a CG sequence
9. Den Hond E, et al. (2015). COnsortium to Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale (COPHES) | DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES) | National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) We developed and applied a harmonized protocol to collect comparable human biomonitoring data all over Europe for measuring levels of mercury in hair and cotinine, phthalate metabolites, and cadmium in urine of children and mothers. Cadmium | Cotinine | Creatinine | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | Mercury | mono-benzyl phthalate | monobutyl phthalate | monoethyl phthalate | mono-isobutyl phthalate Children | Mothers | Study subjects Belgium|Cyprus|
Czech Republic|Denmark|
Germany|Hungary|
Ireland|Luxembourg|
Poland|Portugal|
Romania|Slovakia|
Slovenia|Spain|
Sweden|Switzerland|
United Kingdom|United States
hair | urine Cadmium | Cotinine | Creatinine | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | Mercury | mono-benzyl phthalate | monobutyl phthalate | monoethyl phthalate | mono-isobutyl phthalate Details
10. Tellez-Plaza M, et al. (2010). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) In this representative sample of the US population, high cadmium levels were associated with an increased prevalence of Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD), but the association between cadmium and PAD at low cadmium exposures was markedly different in men and women. sex Cadmium | Cotinine | Lead Controls for disease:Peripheral Arterial Disease | Subjects with disease:Peripheral Arterial Disease | Study subjects United States blood | serum | urine Cadmium | Cotinine | Lead Details Peripheral Arterial Disease
11. Go YM, et al. (2015). We examined quantification strategies to enhance the usefulness of high-resolution metabolomics data for cumulative exposome research; the results provide a simple reference standardization protocol in which individual chemical concentrations are estimated by comparison to a concurrently analyzed, pooled reference sample with known chemical concentrations. Caffeine | Chlorobenzoates | chlorsulfuron | Cotinine | Fyrol PCF | hippuric acid | meobal | octylphenol | pirimicarb | Styrene Study subjects United States plasma Caffeine | Chlorobenzoates | chlorsulfuron | Cotinine | Fyrol PCF | hippuric acid | meobal | octylphenol | pirimicarb | Styrene Details
12. Joubert BR, et al. (2012). Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) We identified a set of genes with methylation changes present at birth in children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy; our findings implicate epigenetic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of the adverse health outcomes associated with this important in utero exposure. tobacco Cotinine | Tobacco Smoke Pollution Infants or newborns | Pregnant females Norway blood, cord | plasma AHRR | CNTNAP2 | Cotinine | CYP1A1 | EXT1 | GFI1 | HLA-DPB2 | MYO1G | RUNX1 | TTC7B Details Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects | DNA methylation on cytosine within a CG sequence | regulation of DNA methylation
13. Braun JM, et al. (2008). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) These results suggest that prenatal tobacco exposure and environmental lead exposure contribute substantially to conduct disorder in U.S. children. Lead | Tobacco Smoke Pollution Children United States blood | serum Cotinine | Lead Details Conduct Disorder
14. Sexton K, et al. (2012). School Health Initiative Environment, Learning, and Disease (SHIELD) Biologic markers confirm that children from a low-income, ethnically diverse neighborhood experienced concurrent exposure to a variety of hazardous environmental chemicals during their everyday activities. socioeconomic status Metals, Heavy | Organothiophosphorus Compounds | Pesticides | Phthalic Acids | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | Tobacco Smoke Pollution | Volatile Organic Compounds Children United States blood | urine 2,2',3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',3,5,5',6-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,4',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2-xylene | beta-hexachlorocyclohexane | Cotinine | DDT | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | dimethyl phosphate | Lead | mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate | mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate | mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate | mono-benzyl phthalate | nonachlor | PCB 180 | Tetrachloroethylene | Toluene Details
15. Migliaccio CT, et al. (2009). These results demonstrate that levoglucosan in the lungs is detectable in the urine of both mice and humans and that it is a good candidate as a biomarker of exposure to biomass smoke. Particulate Matter | Tobacco Smoke Pollution Children United States air | urine 1,6-anhydro-beta-glucopyranose | Cotinine | Particulate Matter Details
16. Baheiraei A, et al. (2014). Maternal environmental tobacco smoking exposure affects milk lipids which are essential for infant growth. Tobacco Smoke Pollution Mothers Iran, Islamic Republic of milk, human Cotinine Details lipid metabolic process
17. Sims M, et al. (2012). Health Survey for England We found that the impact of England's smokefree legislation on secondhand smoke exposure was above and beyond the underlying long-term decline in secondhand smoke exposure and demonstrates the positive effect of the legislation. tobacco Tobacco Smoke Pollution Study subjects United Kingdom saliva Cotinine Details
18. Kamer B, et al. (2014). The results demonstrate that 17% of all the examined children were those exposed to tobacco smoke effects already in their fetal life; moreover, it was observed that the young age and lower education level of their parents, together with poor housing conditions, may suggest a predisposing character. socioeconomic status | tobacco Tobacco Smoke Pollution Children Poland urine Cotinine Details
19. Moore BF, et al. (2016). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Interaction results suggest that the prevalence of obesity among children with both high exposure to secondhand smoke and low levels of certain nutrients (dietary fiber, eicosapentaenoic acid, or docosahexaenoic acid) is greater than would be expected due to the effects of the individual exposures alone. age | diet | tobacco Tobacco Smoke Pollution Children United States serum | urine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butan-1-ol | Cotinine Details Pediatric Obesity
20. Wei B, et al. (2016). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) In this study, we combined and examined the serum cotinine concentrations and associated questionnaire data regarding occupation, tobacco use, and exposure to second hand smoke, collected in five consecutive cycles from the NHANES by the National Center for Health Statistics, within the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during 2001-2010. Tobacco Smoke Pollution Workers United States serum Cotinine Details
21. Su MW, et al. (2016). Our data demonstrated that microRNAs show differential expression after habitual teenage smokers quit smoking. tobacco Tobacco Smoke Pollution Children Taiwan, Province of China urine Cotinine Details regulation of gene silencing by miRNA
22. Reese SE, et al. (2017). Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) We have developed a novel biomarker in the newborn of exposure to sustained maternal smoking during pregnancy using Illumina450K DNA methylation data. Tobacco Smoke Pollution Infants or newborns | Pregnant females Norway blood, cord | plasma Cotinine Details Birth Weight
23. Moore GF, et al. (2012). Child Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (CHETS) This paper reports data from the Scottish, Welsh and Northern Irish studies of changes in Child Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke, repeated cross-sectional studies examining associations of smoke-free legislation with children's Secondhand Smoke exposure. socioeconomic status | tobacco Tobacco Smoke Pollution Children Ireland|United Kingdom saliva Cotinine Details
24. Pirkle JL, et al. (2006). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) We describe the exposure of nonsmokers to secondhand smoke using serum cotinine concentrations measured over a period of 14 years, and we document a substantial decline of approximately 70% in serum cotinine during this period in all groups within the population regardless of age, sex, or race/ethnicity. tobacco Tobacco Smoke Pollution Children | Study subjects United States serum Cotinine Details
25. Yolton K, et al. (2005). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) These data, which indicate an inverse association between environmental tobacco smoke exposure and cognitive deficits among children even at extremely low levels of exposure, support policy to further restrict children's exposure. tobacco Tobacco Smoke Pollution Children United States serum Cotinine Details cognition
26. Flouris AD, et al. (2012). It is concluded that a 1-hour of Secondhand Smoke (SHS) at bar/restaurant levels adversely affects the cardiorespiratory and immune response to maximal physical exertion in healthy nonsmokers for at least three hours following SHS. tobacco Tobacco Smoke Pollution Study subjects Greece serum | urine Cotinine | IFNG | IL4 | TNF Details circulatory system process | immune response | respiratory system process
1–26 of 26 results.