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Chemical Solanaceous Alkaloids

These are exposure studies associated with the chemical and all of its children.

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1–42 of 42 results.
  Reference Associated Study Title Author's Summary Study Factors Stressor Receptors Country Medium Exposure Marker Measurements Outcome
1. Aquilina NJ, et al. (2010). Measurement and Modelling of Air Toxic Concentrations for Health Effect Studies Project (MATCH) The objective of this study was to analyse environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites in urine samples of non-occupationally exposed non-smoker adult subjects and to establish relationships between airborne exposures and urinary concentrations in order to assess the suitability of the studied metabolites as biomarkers of PAH and ETS, study the use of 3-ethenypyridine as ETS tracer, and link ETS scenarios with exposures to carcinogenic PAH and volatile organic compounds. tobacco 1,12-benzoperylene | 1,2,5,6-dibenzanthracene | 1,3-butadiene | 1-hydroxyphenanthrene | 1-hydroxypyrene | 2-hydroxyfluorene | 2-naphthol | 3-vinylpyridine | acenaphthene | acenaphthylene | anthracene | benz(a)anthracene | Benzo(a)pyrene | benzo(b)fluoranthene | benzo(k)fluoranthene | chrysene | coronene | fluoranthene | fluorene | hydroxycotinine | indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene | naphthalene | Nicotine | phenanthrene | Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons | pyrene Study subjects United Kingdom urine 1,12-benzoperylene | 1,2,5,6-dibenzanthracene | 1,3-butadiene | 1-hydroxyphenanthrene | 1-hydroxypyrene | 2-hydroxyfluorene | 2-naphthol | 3-vinylpyridine | acenaphthene | acenaphthylene | anthracene | benz(a)anthracene | Benzo(a)pyrene | benzo(b)fluoranthene | benzo(k)fluoranthene | chrysene | coronene | fluoranthene | fluorene | hydroxycotinine | indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene | naphthalene | Nicotine | phenanthrene | Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons | pyrene Details
2. Goniewicz ML, et al. (2018). Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study These findings provide evidence that using combusted tobacco cigarettes alone or in combination with e-cigarettes is associated with higher concentrations of potentially harmful tobacco constituents in comparison with using e-cigarettes alone. tobacco 1,3-butadiene | 1-hydroxyphenanthrene | 1-hydroxypyrene | 1-naphthol | 2-butenal | 2-hydroxyfluorene | 2-naphthol | 4-(methylnitrosoamino)-4-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol | Acrolein | Acrylamide | Acrylonitrile | Anabasine | anatabine | Arsenic | Benzene | Beryllium | Cadmium | Carbon Disulfide | Cobalt | Cotinine | cotinine-N-oxide | Dimethylformamide | ethylbenzene | Ethylene Oxide | Fluorenes | hydroxycotinine | Isocyanates | isoprene | Lead | mandelic acid | Manganese | nicotine 1-N-oxide | Nicotine | N'-nitrosoanabasine | N'-nitrosoanatabine | N'-nitrosonornicotine | norcotinine | nornicotine | Phenanthrenes | propylene oxide | Strontium | Styrene | Thallium | Toluene | Uranium | Vinyl Chloride | Xylenes Study subjects United States urine 1,3-butadiene | 1-hydroxyphenanthrene | 1-hydroxypyrene | 1-naphthol | 2-butenal | 2-hydroxyfluorene | 2-methylhippuric acid | 2-naphthol | 4-(methylnitrosoamino)-4-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol | Acrolein | Acrylamide | Acrylonitrile | Anabasine | anatabine | Arsenic | Benzene | Beryllium | Cadmium | Carbon Disulfide | Cobalt | Cotinine | cotinine-N-oxide | Dimethylformamide | Fluorenes | Hippurates | hydroxycotinine | isoprene | Lead | mandelic acid | Manganese | N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine | N-acetyl-S-(2-cyanoethyl)cysteine | N-acetyl-S-(2-hydroxyethyl)cysteine | nicotine 1-N-oxide | Nicotine | N'-nitrosoanabasine | N'-nitrosoanatabine | N'-nitrosonornicotine | norcotinine | nornicotine | Phenanthrenes | phenylglyoxylic acid | propylene oxide | S-(3-hydroxypropyl)cysteine N-acetate | S-benzyl-N-acetyl-L-cysteine | Strontium | Thallium | Uranium Details
3. Shahab L, et al. (2017). This study assessed whether long-term e-cigarette (EC)-only, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT)-only, dual cigarette-EC or dual cigarette-NRT use is associated with differences in metabolites of a) nicotine; b) tobacco-specific nitrosaminess and c) volatile organic compounds (VOC) compared with cigarette-only smokers. tobacco 1,3-butadiene | 2-butenal | 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone | Acrolein | Acrylamide | Acrylonitrile | Anabasine | anatabine | Benzene | Carbon Disulfide | Cyanides | Dimethylformamide | ethylbenzene | Ethylene Oxide | Nicotine | N'-nitrosoanabasine | N'-nitrosoanatabine | propylene oxide | Styrene | Vinyl Chloride | Xylenes Study subjects United Kingdom saliva | urine 1,3-butadiene | 2-amino-delta(2)-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid | 2-butenal | 2-methylhippuric acid | 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butan-1-ol | Acrolein | Acrylamide | Acrylonitrile | Anabasine | anatabine | Benzene | Cotinine | cotinine-N-oxide | Dimethylformamide | Hippurates | hydroxycotinine | mandelic acid | muconic acid | N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine | nicotine 1-N-oxide | Nicotine | N'-nitrosoanabasine | N'-nitrosoanatabine | norcotinine | nornicotine | phenylglyoxylic acid | propylene oxide | raphanusamic acid | S-(3-hydroxypropyl)cysteine N-acetate | Styrene Details
4. Goniewicz ML, et al. (2017). This study showed for the first time that after switching from tobacco to e-cigarettes, nicotine exposure remains unchanged, while exposure to selected carcinogens and toxicants is substantially reduced. tobacco 1,3-butadiene | 2-butenal | 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone | Acrolein | Acrylamide | Acrylonitrile | Benzene | Carbon Monoxide | Ethylene Oxide | fluorene | naphthalene | Nicotine | phenanthrene | propylene oxide | pyrene Study subjects Poland urine 1-hydroxyphenanthrene | 1-hydroxypyrene | 2-hydroxyfluorene | 2-naphthol | 3-hydroxy-1-methylpropylmercapturic acid | 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butan-1-ol | Acetylcysteine | Carbon Monoxide | Cotinine | cotinine-N-oxide | fluorene | hydroxycotinine | N-acetyl-S-(2-hydroxyethyl)cysteine | nicotine 1-N-oxide | Nicotine | norcotinine | nornicotine | phenanthrene | S-phenyl-N-acetylcysteine Details
5. Aszyk J, et al. (2017). Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of 42 flavouring compounds and nicotine in liquids for e-cigarettes. 2,5-dimethylpyrazine | 2,6-lutidine | 2-acetylpyrrole | 5-methyl-2-furfural | benzyl acetate | cyclotene | diethyl succinate | ethyl acetoacetate | ethyl lactate | ethyl maltol | ethyl vanillin | furaneol | gamma-valerolactone | linalool | maltol | Menthol | menthone | methyl cinnamate | methylheptenone | methyl salicylate | Nicotine | pyridine | tetramethylpyrazine | vanillin Poland e-cigarette 2,5-dimethylpyrazine | 2,6-lutidine | 2-acetylpyrrole | 5-methyl-2-furfural | benzyl acetate | cyclotene | diethyl succinate | ethyl acetoacetate | ethyl lactate | ethyl maltol | ethyl vanillin | furaneol | gamma-valerolactone | linalool | maltol | Menthol | menthone | methyl cinnamate | methylheptenone | methyl salicylate | Nicotine | pyridine | tetramethylpyrazine | vanillin Details
6. Farsalinos KE, et al. (2015). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nicotine delivery potential of a new-generation electronic cigarette (EC) device in a group of smokers with no previous experience in EC use compared to a group of experienced vapers, and to examine the association between nicotine absorption and puffing topography. tobacco 2-butenal | 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone | Acetaldehyde | Aldehydes | Arsenic | Chromium | Diacetyl | diethylene glycol | Formaldehyde | Glycerol | Lead | Metals, Heavy | Nickel | Nicotine | Nitrosamines | N'-nitrosonornicotine | Propylene Glycol Study subjects Greece e-cigarette, liquid | plasma 2-butenal | 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone | Acetaldehyde | Aldehydes | Arsenic | Chromium | Diacetyl | diethylene glycol | Formaldehyde | Glycerol | Lead | Metals, Heavy | Nickel | Nicotine | Nitrosamines | N'-nitrosonornicotine | Propylene Glycol Details
7. Bitzer ZT, et al. (2018). In this study, we examined free radical, nicotine, and carbonyl delivery from the standardized research e-cigarette (SREC), Blu and Vuse under different puffing parameters to capture the likely changes across different user behaviors. 2-butenal | Acetaldehyde | Acetone | Acrolein | Formaldehyde | Free Radicals | methylethyl ketone | Nicotine | propionaldehyde United States e-cigarette, vapor 2-butenal | Acetaldehyde | Acetone | Acrolein | Formaldehyde | Free Radicals | methylethyl ketone | Nicotine | propionaldehyde Details
8. Farsalinos KE, et al. (2015). In this study, electronic cigarette liquids were evaluated for the presence of selected tobacco-derived chemicals. 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone | Acetaldehyde | Formaldehyde | Nicotine | Nitrates | Nitrosamines | N'-nitrosonornicotine | Phenols Greece|United States cigarette | e-cigarette, liquid 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone | Acetaldehyde | Formaldehyde | Nicotine | Nitrates | Nitrosamines | N'-nitrosonornicotine | Phenols Details
9. Reilly SM, et al. (2018). In conclusion, this brief report demonstrates the relative oxidant and nicotine levels produced by the Juul product as well as characterizes the propylene glycol: glycerol and nicotine content in the e-liquid itself. Acetaldehyde | Acetone | Formaldehyde | Nicotine | propionaldehyde United States e-cigarette, liquid Acetaldehyde | Acetone | Formaldehyde | Nicotine | propionaldehyde Details
10. Tayyarah R, et al. (2014). The purpose of this study was to determine content and delivery of e-cigarette ingredients and to compare e-cigarette aerosol to conventional cigarettes with respect to select harmful and potentially harmful constituents for which conventional cigarette smoke is routinely tested. tobacco Acetaldehyde | Acrolein | Carbon Monoxide | Particulate Matter | Phenol | Phenols | Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons | propionaldehyde | Volatile Organic Compounds United States air | e-cigarette, vapor Acetaldehyde | Acrolein | Carbon Monoxide | Nicotine | Phenol | Phenols | Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons | propionaldehyde | Volatile Organic Compounds Details
11. Campbell RC, et al. (2014). The aim of this study was to determine whether there are predictable relationships among major arsenic species in tobacco that could be useful for risk assessment; the dominance of inorganic arsenic species among those components analysed is a marked feature of the diverse range of tobaccos selected for study. tobacco Arsenicals | Nicotine | tobacco tar Bulgaria|China|
United Kingdom|United States
tobacco Arsenicals | Cacodylic Acid | monomethylarsonic acid | Nicotine | tobacco tar Details
12. Pankow JF, et al. (2017). We investigated formation of benzene (an important human carcinogen) from e-cigarette fluids containing propylene glycol (PG), glycerol (GL), benzoic acid, the flavor chemical benzaldehyde, and nicotine. benzaldehyde | Benzene | Benzoic Acid | Glycerol | Nicotine | Propylene Glycol | Tobacco Smoke Pollution United States e-cigarette, liquid | e-cigarette, vapor Benzene | Benzoic Acid | Nicotine | Particulate Matter Details Neoplasms
13. Ferrari M, et al. (2015). The short-term use of the specific brand of nicotine-free e-cigarette assessed in this study had no immediate adverse effects on non-smokers and only small effects on forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced expiratory flow 25% in smokers. tobacco Benzoic Acid | ethyl carbonate | Nicotine | Propylene Glycol | quinoline | Tobacco Smoke Pollution Study subjects Italy Details respiratory gaseous exchange
14. Lin VY, et al. (2018). Here, we sought to determine if e-cigs are as safe as the general populace perceives, in regards to the deleterious effects of smoking on the ion transport environment of airway epithelia that are associated with chronic bronchitis. tobacco Citric Acid | Glycerol | Nicotine United States e-cigarette, vapor Acrolein Details Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive | active ion transmembrane transporter activity
15. Braun JM, et al. (2010). Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) We observed a dose-dependent relationship between the number of serum cotinine measurements consistent with secondhand or active tobacco smoke exposure during the latter two-thirds of pregnancy and meconium tobacco smoke metabolite concentrations. Cotinine | Tobacco Smoke Pollution Infants or newborns | Pregnant females United States meconium | serum Cotinine | Nicotine Details Birth Weight
16. Antoniewicz L, et al. (2016). In healthy volunteers, ten puffs of e-cigarette vapor inhalation caused an increase in endothelial progenitor cells. Ethanol | Glycerol | Nicotine | Propylene Glycol | Tobacco Smoke Pollution Study subjects Sweden breath | plasma Cotinine | Nitric Oxide Details stem cell population maintenance
17. Valentine GW, et al. (2016). Brief use of a widely available type of e-cigarette containing an e-liquid purchased from an Internet vendor can negatively impact psychomotor performance and in some instances, produce detectable levels of a urine alcohol metabolite. Ethanol | Nicotine Study subjects United States urine ethyl glucuronide Details psychomotor behavior
18. Son Y, et al. (2018). This study examined the impact of e-liquid composition, e-cigarette device power output, and vaping topography on nicotine and nicotyrine concentrations under real-world vaping patterns. Glycerol | Nicotine | Propylene Glycol Study subjects United States e-cigarette, vapor alpha-nicotyrine | Nicotine Details
19. Etter JF. (2016). In summary, over the course of eight months in 2013-2014, experienced vapers decreased the concentration of nicotine in their e-liquids but increased their consumption of e-liquid in order to maintain their cotinine levels constant. tobacco Nicotine Study subjects Switzerland saliva Cotinine Details
20. Harte CB, et al. (2008). The results of the present study provide the first empirical evidence that isolated nicotine significantly reduces physiological sexual arousal in healthy, young, nonsmoking women. tobacco Nicotine Study subjects United States plasma Nicotine Details Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological | regulation of heart rate
21. Whitehead T, et al. (2009). Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study (NCCLS) These findings suggest that house-dust nicotine concentrations reflect long-term exposures to cigarette smoke in the home and that they may be less biased surrogates for children's exposures to cigarette smoke than self-reported smoking habits. Nicotine Children United States dust Nicotine Details
22. Bullen C, et al. (2010). This study compared the Ruyan V8 electronic nicotine delivery device containing 16 mg nicotine cartridges to one containing 0 mg cartridges (identical in appearance and in chemistry but lacking nicotine), Nicorette nicotine inhalator and usual cigarettes. We measured change in desire to smoke, withdrawal symptoms, product preferences, serum nicotine levels and adverse events after 1 day's use. tobacco Nicotine Study subjects New Zealand serum Nicotine Details
23. Etter JF, et al. (2011). We conclude that cotinine levels in electronic nicotine delivery systems users were similar to levels observed, in previous reports, in smokers and higher than levels usually observed in nicotine replacement therapy users. tobacco Nicotine Study subjects Switzerland saliva Cotinine Details
24. Vansickel AR, et al. (2013). The purpose of the present study was to characterize the nicotine delivery profile, subjective, and cardiovascular effects of electronic cigarettes (ECs) in experienced ECs users who were using their preferred devices. tobacco Nicotine Study subjects United States plasma Nicotine Details positive regulation of heart rate
25. Kleinjan M, et al. (2012). International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Nicotine dependence profiles are predicted by interactions between personal and environmental factors. age Nicotine Children Netherlands Nicotine Details Tobacco Use Disorder
26. Goniewicz ML, et al. (2013). Electronic cigarettes (EC) generate vapor that contains nicotine, but EC brands and models differ in their efficacy and consistency of nicotine vaporization. tobacco Nicotine United Kingdom e-cigarette, liquid | e-cigarette, vapor Nicotine Details
27. Etter JF, et al. (2013). About half of the e-liquids analyzed in this study contained acceptable levels of nicotine-related impurities, the nicotine content corresponded, in general, to the labels on the bottles and no diethylene glycol was found in a sample of some of the most popular brands of e-liquids. tobacco Nicotine Switzerland e-cigarette, liquid alpha-nicotyrine | Anabasine | anatabine | Cotinine | myosmine | Nicotine | nornicotine Details
28. Dawkins L, et al. (2014). This study aims to explore in experienced users the effect of using an 18 mg/ml nicotine first-generation e-cigarette on blood nicotine, tobacco withdrawal symptoms, and urge to smoke. tobacco Nicotine Study subjects United Kingdom plasma Nicotine Details
29. Etter JF. (2014). In summary, this and other studies show that vapers can obtain large amounts of nicotine from e-cigarettes, similar to levels observed in smokers and higher than levels usually observed in users of nicotine medications. tobacco Nicotine Study subjects France|Switzerland|
United States
saliva Cotinine Details
30. Goniewicz ML, et al. (2015). This study indicates that there is a risk for thirdhand exposure to nicotine from e-cigarettes. Nicotine United States floor Nicotine Details
31. Dicpinigaitis PV, et al. (2016). A single session of e-cigarette use, approximating nicotine exposure of one tobacco cigarette, induces significant inhibition of cough reflex sensitivity. tobacco Nicotine Study subjects United States Details reflex
32. Harte CB, et al. (2008). Isolated nicotine can significantly attenuate physiological sexual arousal in healthy nonsmoking men. tobacco Nicotine Study subjects United States Nicotine Details Erectile Dysfunction | vasoconstriction
33. Duell AK, et al. (2018). We employed the exchange-averaged 1H NMR chemical shifts of nicotine to determine free base form of nicotine in samples of e-liquids. Nicotine United States e-cigarette, liquid Nicotine Details
34. Goniewicz ML, et al. (2018). Product testing results and participants' high urinary cotinine levels provide physiological evidence for significant nicotine exposure among pod users. tobacco Nicotine Children United States e-cigarette, liquid | e-cigarette, vapor | urine Cotinine | Nicotine Details
35. Sul D, et al. (2012). Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body This study is the first nationwide survey of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nicotine in Korea and provides a background reference range for exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nicotine in the Korean general population. Nicotine | Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Study subjects Korea, Republic of urine 1-hydroxypyrene | 2-naphthol | Cotinine Details
36. Leventhal AM, et al. (2016). This study is the first to comprehensively examine differences in psychiatric profiles between four different groups based on typologies of tobacco product use: (1) non-users; (2) e-cigarette only users; (3) conventional cigarette only users; and (4) dual users. tobacco Nicotine | Tobacco Smoke Pollution Children United States Details Anhedonia | Anxiety Disorders | Depressive Disorder, Major | Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder | Panic Disorder
37. Czoli CD, et al. (2018). The current study examined exposure to nicotine and tobacco smoke constituents among dual users in the context of several product switches in a naturalistic setting. tobacco Nicotine | Tobacco Smoke Pollution Study subjects Canada breath | urine 1-hydroxypyrene | 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butan-1-ol | Carbon Monoxide | Cotinine Details
38. Flouris AD, et al. (2013). In this study, we present the first comprehensive and standardized assessment regarding the impact of short term active and passive e-cigarette smoking on cotinine concentration and lung function compared to active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking. tobacco Nicotine | Tobacco Smoke Pollution Study subjects Greece serum Cotinine Details respiratory gaseous exchange
39. Vinnikov D, et al. (2010). In summary, we found levels of exposure to secondhand smoke both in socializing venues and at home to be high in participants in this study conducted in Kyrgyzstan. tobacco Nicotine | Tobacco Smoke Pollution Workers Kyrgyzstan air | hair Nicotine Details Respiration Disorders
40. McConnell R, et al. (2017). Children's Health Study (CHS) Adolescent e-cigarette users had increased rates of chronic bronchitic symptoms. Nicotine | tobacco tar Children United States Details Bronchitis | Cough | Respiratory Sounds | Respiratory Tract Diseases
41. Peters KO, et al. (2017). Center for Childhood Asthma in the Urban Environment (CCAUE) Time spent in non-smoking homes was associated with significantly decreased urine 1-hydroxypyrene-glucuronide (1-OHPG), and secondhand smoke exposures increased these levels; time spent outdoors was associated with increased urinary 1-OHPG concentrations in boys only; our results suggest that secondhand smoke and ambient outdoor air pollution contribute to internal dose of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in inner city children. sex | tobacco Particulate Matter | Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons | Tobacco Smoke Pollution Children United States air, indoor | urine 1-hydroxypyrene-glucuronide | Nicotine | Particulate Matter Details
42. Wipfli H, et al. (2008). Our results indicate that women and children living with smokers are at increased risk of premature death and disease from exposure to secondhand smoke. Tobacco Smoke Pollution Children | Study subjects Argentina|Armenia|
Brazil|Cambodia|
China|Dominican Republic|
Egypt|Georgia|
Guatemala|Hong Kong|
India|Indonesia|
Latvia|Malaysia|
Mexico|Nepal|
Panama|Peru|
Philippines|Poland|
Romania|Russian Federation|
Syrian Arab Republic|Taiwan, Province of China|
Thailand|Turkey|
Ukraine|Uruguay|
Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of|Vietnam
air | hair Nicotine Details
1–42 of 42 results.