Skip navigation

Chemical Xylenes

These are exposure studies associated with the chemical and all of its children.

Send correction
1–26 of 26 results.
  Reference Associated Study Title Author's Summary Study Factors Stressor Receptors Country Medium Exposure Marker Measurements Outcome
1. Malek AM, et al. (2015). A potential association was found for exposure to ambient air concentrations of suspected neurotoxicant hazardous air pollutants, specifically aromatic solvents, among place of residence in 2002 and 1999 and risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. 1,1,1-trichloroethane | 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane | 2,4-dinitrotoluene | Acrylamide | allyl chloride | Arsenicals | Benzene | Cadmium Compounds | Carbon Disulfide | Carbon Tetrachloride | Chloroform | Cresols | Cyanides | ethylbenzene | Ethylene Dibromide | ethylene dichloride | Ethylene Oxide | Hexachlorobenzene | hexachloroethane | Hexanes | hydrazine | Lead | Manganese Compounds | Mercury Compounds | Methyl Chloride | Methylene Chloride | Nickel | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | Selenium Compounds | Styrene | Tetrachloroethylene | Toluene | Trichloroethylene | Vinyl Chloride | Xylenes Controls for disease:Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis | Subjects with disease:Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis | Study subjects United States 1,1,1-trichloroethane | 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane | 2,4-dinitrotoluene | Acrylamide | allyl chloride | Arsenicals | Benzene | Cadmium Compounds | Carbon Disulfide | Carbon Tetrachloride | Chloroform | Cresols | Cyanides | ethylbenzene | Ethylene Dibromide | ethylene dichloride | Ethylene Oxide | Hexachlorobenzene | hexachloroethane | Hexanes | hydrazine | Lead | Manganese Compounds | Mercury Compounds | Methyl Chloride | Methylene Chloride | Nickel | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | Selenium Compounds | Styrene | Tetrachloroethylene | Toluene | Trichloroethylene | Vinyl Chloride | Xylenes Details Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
2. Vermeulen R, et al. (2004). Benzene and toluene exposures were determined in part by the degree of contact with glues, the benzene and toluene content of each glue, air movement and ventilation patterns. 1,1,1-trichloroethane | 2,2,4-trimethylpentane | 3-xylene | 4-xylene | Acetone | Benzene | chlorobenzene | ethyl acetate | ethylbenzene | ethylene dichloride | Heptanes | Hexanes | Methylene Chloride | methylethyl ketone | methyl isobutyl ketone | octane | pentane | Toluene Workers China air, indoor 1,1,1-trichloroethane | 2,2,4-trimethylpentane | 3-xylene | 4-xylene | Acetone | Benzene | chlorobenzene | ethyl acetate | ethylbenzene | ethylene dichloride | Heptanes | Hexanes | Methylene Chloride | methylethyl ketone | methyl isobutyl ketone | octane | pentane | Toluene Details
3. Sexton K, et al. (2005). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) | The School Health Initiative: Environment, Learning, Disease (SHIELD) Results indicate that childhood exposures to some compounds equaled or exceeded volatile organic compound (VOC) exposures of adults, including smokers, in an earlier national survey, and that within-child variability was greater than between-child variability for 7 of 11 individual VOCs. 1,1,1-trichloroethane | 2-xylene | 3-xylene | 4-dichlorobenzene | 4-xylene | Benzene | Carbon Tetrachloride | ethylbenzene | Styrene | Tetrachloroethylene | Toluene | Trichloroethylene Children | Study subjects United States blood 1,1,1-trichloroethane | 2-xylene | 3-xylene | 4-dichlorobenzene | 4-xylene | Benzene | Carbon Tetrachloride | ethylbenzene | Styrene | Tetrachloroethylene | Toluene | Trichloroethylene Details
4. von Ehrenstein OS, et al. (2016). California Cancer Registry Our data suggest that in utero and infancy exposures to air toxics generated by industrial and road traffic sources may increase the risk of primitive neuroectodermal tumor and medulloblastoma, with limited support for increased risks for astrocytoma in children up to age 6. 1,12-benzoperylene | 1,2,5,6-dibenzanthracene | 1,3-butadiene | 2-dichlorobenzene | 2-xylene | 4-dichlorobenzene | Acetaldehyde | Benzene | Benzo(a)pyrene | benzo(b)fluoranthene | benzo(k)fluoranthene | Chloroform | Chromium | chromium hexavalent ion | ethylbenzene | Formaldehyde | indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene | Lead | Methylene Chloride | Nickel | Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons | Selenium | Styrene | Tetrachloroethylene | Toluene | Trichloroethylene Controls for disease:Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive | Subjects with disease:Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive United States air 1,12-benzoperylene | 1,2,5,6-dibenzanthracene | 1,3-butadiene | 2-dichlorobenzene | 2-xylene | 4-dichlorobenzene | Acetaldehyde | Benzene | Benzo(a)pyrene | benzo(b)fluoranthene | benzo(k)fluoranthene | Chloroform | Chromium | chromium hexavalent ion | ethylbenzene | Formaldehyde | indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene | Lead | Methylene Chloride | Nickel | Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons | Selenium | Styrene | Tetrachloroethylene | Toluene | Trichloroethylene Details Astrocytoma | Medulloblastoma | Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive
5. Cicalese L, et al. (2017). In our study, we showed that selected relevant air pollutants produce a significant clustering of the Texan counties with respect to their concentration and discussed about the incidence rate distributions of liver cancer over the identified clusters. 2,2,4-trimethylpentane | Benzene | ethylbenzene | Formaldehyde | Hexanes | Hydrochloric Acid | Methanol | methyl tert-butyl ether | Toluene | Xylenes Study subjects United States Details Liver Neoplasms
6. Munger R, et al. (1997). We conclude that communities in southern Iowa with drinking water supplies contaminated with herbicides have elevated rates of intrauterine growth retardation compared to neighboring communities with different water supplies. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 2-xylene | 3-xylene | 4-xylene | alachlor | Atrazine | bromodichloromethane | bromoform | chlorodibromomethane | Chloroform | cyanazine | metolachlor | tetrachloroethane Pregnant females United States water, drinking 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 2-xylene | alachlor | Atrazine | bromodichloromethane | bromoform | chlorodibromomethane | Chloroform | cyanazine | metolachlor | tetrachloroethane | Xylenes Details Fetal Growth Retardation
7. Wang BL, et al. (2007). We concluded that unmetabolized volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the urine can provide a reliable biological indicator for air VOC exposures in non-occupational environments. 2-dichlorobenzene | 2-xylene | 3-xylene | 4-xylene | ethylbenzene | Styrene | Toluene | Xylenes Study subjects Japan air | urine 2-dichlorobenzene | 2-xylene | 3-xylene | 4-xylene | ethylbenzene | Styrene | Toluene | Xylenes Details
8. Goniewicz ML, et al. (2014). Our findings are consistent with the idea that substituting tobacco cigarettes with electronic cigarettes may substantially reduce exposure to selected tobacco-specific toxicants. tobacco 2-methylbenzaldehyde | 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone | Acetaldehyde | Acrolein | Cadmium | Formaldehyde | Lead | Nickel | N'-nitrosonornicotine | Toluene | Xylenes Poland e-cigarette, vapor 2-methylbenzaldehyde | 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone | Acetaldehyde | Acrolein | Cadmium | Formaldehyde | Lead | Nickel | N'-nitrosonornicotine | Toluene | Xylenes Details
9. Liu J, et al. (2009). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) In summary, the study supports that personal exposures to certain volatile organic compounds as a group or individually may have an effect on liver function in the general population. 2-xylene | 3-xylene | 4-dichlorobenzene | 4-xylene | Benzene | Chloroform | ethylbenzene | methyl tert-butyl ether | Tetrachloroethylene | Toluene | Trichloroethylene Study subjects United States 2-xylene | 3-xylene | 4-dichlorobenzene | 4-xylene | Benzene | Chloroform | ethylbenzene | methyl tert-butyl ether | Tetrachloroethylene | Toluene | Trichloroethylene Details
10. Atari DO, et al. (2009). Consequently, the main objectives of this study were to: 1) develop land use regression models to predict volatile organic compounds, specifically benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene, o-xylene (BTEX), and total BTEX in Sarnia, and 2) determine the intra-urban variations of ambient benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene, o-xylene, and total BTEX to be used in a larger community health study. 2-xylene | 3-xylene | 4-xylene | Benzene | ethylbenzene | Toluene | Volatile Organic Compounds Canada air 2-xylene | 3-xylene | 4-xylene | Benzene | ethylbenzene | Toluene | Volatile Organic Compounds Details
11. Elliott L, et al. (2006). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Exposure to 1,4-dichlorobenzene (a volatile organic compound related to the use of air fresheners, toilet bowl deodorants, and mothballs) at levels found in the US general population, may result in reduced pulmonary function. 4-dichlorobenzene | Volatile Organic Compounds Study subjects United States blood 1,1,1-trichloroethane | 2-xylene | 3-xylene | 4-dichlorobenzene | 4-xylene | Acetone | Benzene | ethylbenzene | methylethyl ketone | Styrene | Tetrachloroethylene | Toluene Details PULMONARY FUNCTION
12. Dodson RE, et al. (2012). Common products contain complex mixtures of Endocrine-disrupting compounds and asthma-related compounds. 4-nonylphenol | 4-tert-octylphenol | benzophenone | benzyl acetate | bisphenol A | butylbenzyl phthalate | butylparaben | decamethylcyclopentasiloxane | Dibutyl Phthalate | dicyclohexyl phthalate | diethanolamine | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | diethyl phthalate | diisobutyl phthalate | diisononyl phthalate | di-n-hexyl phthalate | di-n-octyl phthalate | di-n-propylphthalate | Ethanolamine | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | Eugenol | galaxolide | limonene | linalool | methyleugenol | methylionone | methylparaben | methyl salicylate | musk ketone | musk xylene | n-butoxyethanol | octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane | octylmethoxycinnamate | oxybenzone | phenoxyethanol | Phenyl Ethers | Phenylethyl Alcohol | pichtosin | triclocarban | Triclosan United States air freshener | air freshener, car | baking soda | bar soap | body lotion | body wash | Borax | car interior cleaner | carpet cleaner | cat litter | conditioner | deodorant | diaper | dish liquid | dishwasher detergent | dryer sheet | fabric refresher | facial cleanser | facial lotion | floor cleaner | foundation | fragrance or perfume | glass cleaner | hair gel | hair spray or mousse or gel | hand sanitizer | hand soap | laundry bleach | laundry detergent | lip balm | lipstick | mascara | nail polish | pillow protector | polish or wax | scrubbing powder | shampoo | shaving cream | shower curtain, vinyl | stain remover | sunscreen | sunscreen composite | surface cleaner | toilet bowl cleaner | toothpaste | tub and tile cleaner | wet mop 4-nonylphenol | 4-tert-octylphenol | benzophenone | benzyl acetate | bisphenol A | butylbenzyl phthalate | butylparaben | decamethylcyclopentasiloxane | Dibutyl Phthalate | dicyclohexyl phthalate | diethanolamine | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | diethyl phthalate | diisobutyl phthalate | diisononyl phthalate | di-n-hexyl phthalate | di-n-octyl phthalate | di-n-propylphthalate | Ethanolamine | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | Eugenol | galaxolide | limonene | linalool | methyleugenol | methylionone | methylparaben | methyl salicylate | musk ketone | musk xylene | n-butoxyethanol | octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane | octylmethoxycinnamate | oxybenzone | phenoxyethanol | Phenyl Ethers | Phenylethyl Alcohol | pichtosin | triclocarban | Triclosan Details
13. Jiménez-Garza O, et al. (2017). Our results demonstrate alterations in the inflammation pathway at the epigenetic level associated with exposure to benzene. Acetone | Benzene | ethylbenzene | methyl acetate | methylethyl ketone | n-hexane | Toluene | Xylenes Workers Mexico air Acetone | Benzene | ethylbenzene | methyl acetate | methylethyl ketone | n-hexane | Toluene | Xylenes Details Inflammation | inflammatory response | methylation
14. Logue JM, et al. (2012). The approach demonstrated in this study may be used to assess regional and national initiatives that affect indoor air quality at the population level. Cumulative health impacts from inhalation in U.S. residences of the indoor air pollutants assessed in this study are estimated at 400-1,100 disability-adjusted life years lost annually per 100,000 persons. Air Pollutants United States 1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethane | 1,1,2-trichloroethane | 1,3-butadiene | 2-butenal | 2-ethoxyethanol | 2-ethylhexanol | 2-phenylphenol | 2-xylene | 4-dichlorobenzene | Acetaldehyde | Acrolein | Acrylonitrile | Ammonia | Arsenic | Atrazine | Benzaldehydes | Benzene | Benzo(a)pyrene | benzyl chloride | Beryllium | bromodichloromethane | bromoform | Cadmium | Carbon Disulfide | Carbon Monoxide | Carbon Tetrachloride | chlorobenzene | chlorodibromomethane | Chloroform | Chromium | cumene | Cyclohexane | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | dioctyl adipate | Ethanol | ethylbenzene | Ethyl Chloride | Ethylene Dibromide | ethylene dichloride | Formaldehyde | hexachlorobutadiene | Manganese | Mercury | methyl cellosolve | Methyl Chloride | Methylene Chloride | methylethyl ketone | methyl isobutyl ketone | Methylmethacrylate | methyl tert-butyl ether | naphthalene | n-butoxyethanol | Nitrogen Dioxide | Ozone | Particulate Matter | Pentachlorophenol | Styrene | Sulfur Dioxide | Tetrachloroethylene | tetrahydrofuran | Toluene | Trichloroethylene | Vinyl Chloride | vinylidene chloride | Xylenes Details
15. Kalkbrenner AE, et al. (2010). Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network (ADDM) Our screening design was limited by exposure misclassification of air pollutants and the use of an alternate developmental disorder as the control group, both of which may have biased results toward the null. Despite these limitations, methylene chloride, quinoline, and styrene emerged (based on this analysis and prior epidemiologic evidence) as candidates that warrant further investigation for a possible role in autism etiology. Air Pollutants United States air 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane | 1,3-butadiene | 1,3-dichloro-1-propene | Acetaldehyde | Acrolein | Acrylonitrile | Arsenicals | Benzene | Beryllium | Cadmium Compounds | Carbon Tetrachloride | Chloroform | Chromium Compounds | Coke | ethylbenzene | Ethylene Dibromide | ethylene dichloride | Ethylene Oxide | Formaldehyde | Hexachlorobenzene | Hexanes | hydrazine | Lead | Manganese Compounds | Mercury Compounds | Methylene Chloride | methyl tert-butyl ether | Nickel | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons | propionaldehyde | propylene dichloride | quinoline | Styrene | Tetrachloroethylene | Toluene | Trichloroethylene | Vehicle Emissions | Vinyl Chloride | Xylenes Details Autism Spectrum Disorder
16. Oiamo TH, et al. (2011). Levels of exposure to pollution appears to influence utilization of health care services, but poor access to primary health care services additionally burden certain groups in Sarnia, Ontario, Canada. socioeconomic status Air Pollutants Canada air, outdoor 2-xylene | 3-xylene | 4-xylene | Benzene | ethylbenzene | Nitrogen Dioxide | Sulfur Dioxide | Toluene Details
17. Windham GC, et al. (2006). Our results suggest a potential association between autism and estimated metal concentrations, and possibly chlorinated solvents, in ambient air around the birth residence, requiring confirmation and more refined exposure assessment in future studies. Air Pollutants Controls for disease:Autism Spectrum Disorder | Subjects with disease:Autism Spectrum Disorder | Children United States air, ambient Arsenic | Benzene | Cadmium | Chromium | ethylbenzene | hydrazine | Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated | Lead | Manganese | Mercury | Metals, Heavy | Methylene Chloride | Nickel | Particulate Matter | Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons | Solvents | Styrene | Tetrachloroethylene | Toluene | Trichloroethylene | Vinyl Chloride | Xylenes Details Autism Spectrum Disorder
18. Porter TR, et al. (2014). The present investigation suggests fugitive emissions from industrial point sources may increase the risk of adverse birth outcomes in surrounding neighborhoods. Air Pollutants | Arsenic | Benzene | Cadmium | Coke | ethylbenzene | Lead | Manganese | Mercury | Steel | Toluene | Xylenes Pregnant females United States Details Premature Birth | Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
19. Payne-Sturges DC, et al. (2004). The present study provides an evaluation of Assessment System for Population Exposure Nationwide (ASPEN) based on measurements of air toxic levels indoors, outdoors, and on individuals. Benzene | Carbon Tetrachloride | Chloroform | ethylbenzene | Methylene Chloride | methyl tert-butyl ether | Styrene | Tetrachloroethylene | Toluene | Trichloroethylene | Xylenes Study subjects United States Benzene | Carbon Tetrachloride | Chloroform | ethylbenzene | Methylene Chloride | methyl tert-butyl ether | Styrene | Tetrachloroethylene | Toluene | Trichloroethylene | Xylenes Details
20. Macey GP, et al. (2014). Levels of eight volatile chemicals exceeded federal guidelines under several operational circumstances. Benzene, formaldehyde, and hydrogen sulfide were the most common compounds to exceed acute and other health-based risk levels. Benzene | ethylbenzene | Formaldehyde | Hydrogen Sulfide | n-hexane | Toluene | Xylenes United States air Benzene | ethylbenzene | Formaldehyde | Hydrogen Sulfide | n-hexane | Toluene | Xylenes Details
21. Edokpolo B, et al. (2014). Authors report the ccupational exposure limits and air quality guideline values for exposure to benzene, toluene, and xylene. Benzene | Toluene | Xylenes Workers South Africa|United States air, ambient Benzene | Toluene | Xylenes Details
22. Schlumpf M, et al. (2010). We present data on chemicals in human milk of 54 mother/child pairs, where for the first time cosmetic UV filters (sunscreens), synthetic musks, parabens, and phthalate metabolites were analyzed in the same sample along with persistent organochlor pollutants, polybrominated diphenylethers, and polychlorinated biphenyls. diet Dibutyl Phthalate | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | diisobutyl phthalate | Parabens | Perfume | Pesticides | Polybrominated Biphenyls | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | Sunscreening Agents Infants or newborns | Mothers Switzerland milk, human 2,2',3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',4,4',5-brominated diphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,4'-trichlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',5'-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,5,2',5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl | acetyl methyl tetramethyl tetralin | alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane | beta-hexachlorocyclohexane | Chlordan | chlorpyrifos-ethyl | DDT | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | Dieldrin | enzacamene | ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | galaxolide | Heptachlor | hexabrominated diphenyl ether 153 | hexabromodiphenyl ether 154 | Hexachlorobenzene | homosalate | Lindane | methylparaben | mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate | monobutyl phthalate | mono-isobutyl phthalate | musk ketone | musk xylene | nonachlor | octocrylene | octyl dimethyl 4-aminobenzoic acid | o,p'-DDT | oxybenzone | oxychlordane | PCB 180 | pentabrominated diphenyl ether 100 | phantolid | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | propylparaben | Toxaphene | tribromodiphenyl ether 28 Details
23. Sexton K, et al. (2012). School Health Initiative Environment, Learning, and Disease (SHIELD) Biologic markers confirm that children from a low-income, ethnically diverse neighborhood experienced concurrent exposure to a variety of hazardous environmental chemicals during their everyday activities. socioeconomic status Metals, Heavy | Organothiophosphorus Compounds | Pesticides | Phthalic Acids | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | Tobacco Smoke Pollution | Volatile Organic Compounds Children United States blood | urine 2,2',3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',3,5,5',6-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,4',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2-xylene | beta-hexachlorocyclohexane | Cotinine | DDT | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | dimethyl phosphate | Lead | mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate | mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate | mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate | mono-benzyl phthalate | nonachlor | PCB 180 | Tetrachloroethylene | Toluene Details
24. Yorifuji T, et al. (2012). In the present study, it was demonstrated that volatile organic compounds were higher in the vicinity of the factory, and even the concentration of total volatile organic compounds in the residential area exceeded 200 micrograms per cubic meter. Furthermore, the prevalence of mucocutaneous and respiratory symptoms was highest among the residents in the closest area to the factory. Volatile Organic Compounds Study subjects Japan air 2-xylene | 4-dichlorobenzene | 4-ethyltoluene | Benzene | decane | ethyl acetate | ethylbenzene | Heptanes | methyl isobutyl ketone | n-dodecane | nonane | octane | pseudocumene | Styrene | Tetrachloroethylene | Toluene | Trichloroethylene | tridecane | undecane | Volatile Organic Compounds | Xylenes Details Lung Diseases
25. Adgate JL, et al. (2004). School Health Initiative Environment, Learning, and Disease (SHIELD) Biomarkers confirm that children from ethnically diverse inner city neighborhoods are exposed to various volatile organic compounds socioeconomic status Volatile Organic Compounds Children United States air 2-xylene | 4-dichlorobenzene | alpha-pinene | Benzene | beta-pinene | Carbon Tetrachloride | Chloroform | ethylbenzene | limonene | Methylene Chloride | Styrene | Tetrachloroethylene | Toluene | Trichloroethylene | Xylenes Details
26. Kirman CR, et al. (2012). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) For the small number of volatile organic chemicals with detectable blood concentrations in the NHANES data set, the potential for deleterious non-cancer effects appears low but is affected by the smoking status of the participants. tobacco Volatile Organic Compounds Study subjects United States blood 2,5-dimethylfuran | 2-xylene | 3-xylene | 4-dichlorobenzene | 4-xylene | Benzene | ethylbenzene | methyl tert-butyl ether | Styrene | Tetrachloroethylene | Toluene Details
1–26 of 26 results.