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Chemical Chemical Actions and Uses

These are exposure studies associated with the chemical and all of its children.

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  Reference Associated Study Title Author's Summary Study Factors Stressor Receptors Country Medium Exposure Marker Measurements Outcome
1. Lee DH, et al. (2007). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) This study suggests that the prevalence of a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors relates to background exposure to a mixture of persistent organic pollutants, several of which are also related to the prevalence of diabetes. 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzodioxin | 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran | 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorodibenzofuran | 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,4',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl | 3,4,5,3',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl | Dibenzofurans, Polychlorinated | Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated | Pesticides | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins Study subjects United States Details Insulin Resistance | Metabolic Syndrome | cholesterol metabolic process | regulation of blood pressure | triglyceride metabolic process
2. Mi T, et al. (2013). We describe two cases of acute toxic leukoencephalopathy in migrant workers who were occupationally exposed to organic solvents in construction materials. 1,2,3-trichloropropane | Solvents | Toluene Workers China blood | urine 1,2,3-trichloropropane | Benzoic Acid Details Leukoencephalopathies | Neurotoxicity Syndromes | Occupational Diseases
3. Schreder ED, et al. (2014). Levels of flame retardants in house dust and a transport pathway from homes to the outdoor environment were investigated in communities near the Columbia River in Washington state. 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane | 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6-nonabromodiphenyl ether | 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptabromodiphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate | bis(2-ethylhexyl) 2,3,4,5-tetrabromophthalate | decabromobiphenyl ether | decabromodiphenyl ethane | Flame Retardants | Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers | hexabrominated diphenyl ether 153 | hexabromocyclododecane | hexabromodiphenyl ether 154 | pentabrominated diphenyl ether 100 | pentabromodiphenyl ether | tetrabromobisphenol A | tribromodiphenyl ether 28 | tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate | tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate | tris(chloroethyl)phosphate United States dust | waste water, laundry 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane | 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6-nonabromodiphenyl ether | 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptabromodiphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate | bis(2-ethylhexyl) 2,3,4,5-tetrabromophthalate | decabromobiphenyl ether | decabromodiphenyl ethane | Flame Retardants | Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers | hexabrominated diphenyl ether 153 | hexabromocyclododecane | hexabromodiphenyl ether 154 | pentabrominated diphenyl ether 100 | pentabromodiphenyl ether | tetrabromobisphenol A | tribromodiphenyl ether 28 | tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate | tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate | tris(chloroethyl)phosphate Details
4. Stapleton HM, et al. (2009). We designed this study to identify potential organophosphate flame retardant chemicals currently being used in polyurethane foam in residential and office furniture purchased in the United States. 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane | 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate | bis(2-ethylhexyl) 2,3,4,5-tetrabromophthalate | Flame Retardants | Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers | hexabromocyclododecane | triphenyl phosphate | tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate | tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate Children | Study subjects United States dust 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane | 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate | bis(2-ethylhexyl) 2,3,4,5-tetrabromophthalate | Flame Retardants | Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers | hexabromocyclododecane | triphenyl phosphate | tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate | tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate Details
5. Meeker JD, et al. (2004). In the present study we found associations between urinary metabolites of contemporary-use insecticides and decreased sperm concentration and motility in humans. 1-naphthol | 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol | Insecticides Subjects with disease:Infertility, Male United States semen | urine 1-naphthol | 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol Details Infertility, Male | spermatogenesis | sperm motility
6. Bouwman H, et al. (2006). DDT and pyrethroid insecticides were determined in breast milk from primiparous and multiparous mothers living in three towns in South Africa (one of which had no need for DDT for malaria control); the source of water (river vs. piped) affected some levels in one town. 2,2-(2-chlorophenyl-4'-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene | DDT | Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | Insecticides | Mitotane | o,p'-DDT Mothers South Africa milk, human 2,2-(2-chlorophenyl-4'-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene | cyfluthrin | cypermethrin | DDT | decamethrin | Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | Mitotane | o,p'-DDT | Permethrin | Pyrethrins Details
7. Robinson O, et al. (2015). INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) Project In summary, the correlation analysis presented here of multiple environmental exposures among pregnant women provide a first picture of the structure of the exposome during the crucial in utero period. 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptabromodiphenyl ether | 2,2',3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',4,4',5-brominated diphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | Antimony | Arsenic | Benzene | beta-hexachlorocyclohexane | bisphenol A | Cadmium | Cesium | Chloroform | Cobalt | Copper | Cotinine | decabromobiphenyl ether | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | hexabrominated diphenyl ether 153 | hexabromodiphenyl ether 154 | Hexachlorobenzene | Lead | Mercury | Molybdenum | mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate | mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate | mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate | mono-benzyl phthalate | monobutyl phthalate | monoethyl phthalate | mono-isobutyl phthalate | Nickel | Nitric Oxide | Nitrogen Dioxide | Nitrogen Oxides | Particulate Matter | PCB 180 | pentabrominated diphenyl ether 100 | pentabromodiphenyl ether | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | Pesticides | Phthalic Acids | Selenium | Thallium | Tobacco Smoke Pollution | Trihalomethanes | Zinc Pregnant females Spain air | blood, cord | colostrum | serum | urine | water 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptabromodiphenyl ether | 2,2',3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',4,4',5-brominated diphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | Antimony | Arsenic | Benzene | beta-hexachlorocyclohexane | bisphenol A | Cadmium | Cesium | Chloroform | Cobalt | Copper | Cotinine | decabromobiphenyl ether | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | hexabrominated diphenyl ether 153 | hexabromodiphenyl ether 154 | Hexachlorobenzene | Lead | Mercury | Molybdenum | mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate | mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate | mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate | mono-benzyl phthalate | monobutyl phthalate | monoethyl phthalate | mono-isobutyl phthalate | Nickel | Nitric Oxide | Nitrogen Dioxide | Nitrogen Oxides | Particulate Matter | PCB 180 | pentabrominated diphenyl ether 100 | pentabromodiphenyl ether | perfluorohexanesulfonic acid | perfluorononanoic acid | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid | Pesticides | Phthalic Acids | Selenium | Thallium | Tobacco Smoke Pollution | Trihalomethanes | Zinc Details
8. Stapleton HM, et al. (2014). This study represents the first examination of US children's exposure to a suite of flame retardant chemicals in indoor environments. 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptabromodiphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4',5-brominated diphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2-ethylhexyltetrabromobenzoate | bis(2-ethylhexyl) 2,3,4,5-tetrabromophthalate | decabromobiphenyl ether | Flame Retardants | Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers | hexabrominated diphenyl ether 153 | hexabromocyclododecane | hexabromodiphenyl ether 154 | pentabrominated diphenyl ether 100 | tetrabromobisphenol A | tribromodiphenyl ether 28 | tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate | tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate | tris(chloroethyl)phosphate Children United States dust | handwipe 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptabromodiphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4',5-brominated diphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2-ethylhexyltetrabromobenzoate | bis(2-ethylhexyl) 2,3,4,5-tetrabromophthalate | decabromobiphenyl ether | Flame Retardants | Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers | hexabrominated diphenyl ether 153 | hexabromocyclododecane | hexabromodiphenyl ether 154 | pentabrominated diphenyl ether 100 | tetrabromobisphenol A | tribromodiphenyl ether 28 | tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate | tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate | tris(chloroethyl)phosphate Details
9. Wang SL, et al. (2004). This study has provided an indication of polychlorinated biphenyl, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, and dibenzofuran body burden from a group of childbearing aged women and their newborns among the general population in central Taiwan. 2,2',3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | Dibenzofurans, Polychlorinated | Endocrine Disruptors | PCB 180 | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins Pregnant females Taiwan, Province of China blood | blood, cord | milk, human | placenta Dibenzofurans, Polychlorinated | Endocrine Disruptors | Heterocyclic Compounds | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins Details
10. Goldner WS, et al. (2010). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) These data support a role of organochlorines, in addition to fungicides, in the etiology of thyroid disease among female spouses enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | alachlor | Aldrin | Atrazine | Benomyl | butylate | Captan | Carbaryl | Carbon Disulfide | Carbon Tetrachloride | Chlordan | chlorimuron ethyl | Chlorpyrifos | cyanazine | DDT | Diazinon | Dicamba | Dichlorvos | EPTC | Fonofos | Fungicides, Industrial | glyphosate | Heptachlor | Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated | imazethapyr | Insecticides | Lindane | Malathion | mancozeb | Maneb | metalaxyl | methyl bromide | metolachlor | metribuzin | Paraquat | Parathion | pendimethalin | Petroleum | terbufos | tetrachloroisophthalonitrile | Trifluralin Study subjects United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Hyperthyroidism | Hypothyroidism
11. Beard JD, et al. (2014). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) Our study supports a positive association between pesticide exposure and depression, including associations with several specific pesticides. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | aluminum phosphide | Diazinon | Dieldrin | Ethylene Dibromide | Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated | Malathion | Parathion | Pesticides Workers United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Depressive Disorder
12. Saldana TM, et al. (2007). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) These findings suggest that activities involving exposure to agricultural pesticides during the first trimester of pregnancy may increase the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | Atrazine | butylate | Carbofuran | Diazinon | fenoprop | Pesticides | Phorate Mothers United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Diabetes, Gestational
13. Kamel F, et al. (2007). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) This study suggests that exposure to certain pesticides may increase Parkinson's disease risk. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | Benomyl | butylate | Carbon Disulfide | Carbon Tetrachloride | cyanazine | Dicamba | Ethylene Dibromide | Lindane | mancozeb | Maneb | methyl bromide | Paraquat | pendimethalin | Pesticides | Phorate | tetrachloroisophthalonitrile Study subjects | Workers United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Parkinson Disease
14. Godduhn A, et al. (2013). Northway Health Study (NHS) The NHS found complex patterns of association between reported resource uses and cancer and thyroid-, reproductive-, metabolic-, and cardiac problems. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | Chlorine | Pesticides | Petroleum | Vehicle Emissions Study subjects United States Details Cardiovascular Diseases | Neoplasms | Thyroid Diseases | Urologic Diseases
15. Carreón T, et al. (2005). Upper Midwest Health Study (UMHS) Results show that exposure to pesticides was not associated with an increased risk of intracranial gliomas in women. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 2-chloro-N-(ethoxymethyl)-N-(2-methyl-6-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)acetamide | alachlor | Aniline Compounds | Arsenicals | Atrazine | bentazone | Benzoic Acid | Carbamates | cyanazine | DDT | Diazinon | Dicamba | Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated | imazethapyr | Inorganic Chemicals | Malathion | metolachlor | Organophosphates | pendimethalin | Pesticides | Triazines | Trifluralin Controls for disease:Glioma | Subjects with disease:Glioma United States Details Glioma
16. Jurewicz J, et al. (2012). The presented study confirms that farmers' spouses are exposed to pesticides after spraying, which indicates that there is transfer of pesticides from the field to the home environment. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic Acid Study subjects Poland urine 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic Acid | Herbicides Details
17. Hoppin JA, et al. (2017). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) We evaluated the association of currently used pesticides with allergic and non-allergic wheeze among male farmers, and our results implicate several pesticides that are commonly used in agricultural and residential settings with adverse respiratory effects. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | acetochlor | Atrazine | bentazone | Carbaryl | Chlorpyrifos | clomazone | clopyralid | cyfluthrin | Dicamba | Dimethoate | Disulfoton | fenoxaprop ethyl | fluazifop-butyl | glyphosate | Herbicides | imazaquin | Insecticides | Malathion | mesotrione | metolachlor | N-(2,6-difluorophenyl)-5-methyl(1,2,4)-triazol(1,5-a)pyrimidine-2-sulfonamide | nicosulfuron | Permethrin | Petroleum | Picloram | Pyrethrins | Rodenticides | Simazine | triclopyr | Trifluralin | Warfarin Workers United States Details Respiratory Sounds | Rhinitis, Allergic
18. Hoppin JA, et al. (2008). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) These findings suggest that pesticides may contribute to atopic asthma, but not nonatopic asthma, among farm women. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | Carbamates | Carbaryl | Coumaphos | DDT | glyphosate | Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated | Malathion | metalaxyl | Organophosphates | Parathion | Permethrin | Pesticides | Phorate Study subjects United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Asthma
19. Mandel JS, et al. (2005). The results of the study showed that exposure to farm family members can be quantified using biological markers of exposure and the exposure was variable by chemical largely, though not exclusively, determined by the degree of direct contact with the application process. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | Chlorpyrifos | Herbicides Children | Study subjects | Workers United States urine 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol | Herbicides Details
20. Beard JD, et al. (2013). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) Our study adds further evidence that high level pesticide exposure, such as pesticide poisoning, is associated with increased risk of depression and sets a lower bound on the level of exposure related to depression, thereby providing reassurance that the moderate levels of pesticide exposure experienced by farmers' wives likely do not increase risk. age | tobacco 2-chloro-N-(ethoxymethyl)-N-(2-methyl-6-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)acetamide | Carbamates | Herbicides | metalaxyl | Permethrin | Pesticides | Triazines Study subjects United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Depressive Disorder
21. Smarr MM, et al. (2017). Longitudinal Investigation of Fertility and the Environment Study (LIFE) Higher quartiles of preconception urinary concentrations of methyl paraben and ethyl paraben among female partners were associated with reduced couple fecundity in partner-specific and couple-based exposure models. sex 4-hydroxybenzoic acid | Anti-Infective Agents | benzylparaben | butylparaben | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | heptylparaben | methylparaben | Parabens | propylparaben | protocatechuic acid | triclocarban | Triclosan Study subjects United States urine 4-hydroxybenzoic acid | benzylparaben | butylparaben | Creatinine | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | heptylparaben | methylparaben | propylparaben | protocatechuic acid | triclocarban | Triclosan Details Infertility, Female | reproductive process
22. Marfo JT, et al. (2015). Urinary N-desmethylacetamiprid can be used as a biomarker for environmental exposure to acetamiprid, and detection of N-desmethylacetamiprid was associated with increased prevalence of neurological symptoms. acetamiprid | Insecticides Controls for disease:Neurologic Manifestations | Subjects with disease:Neurologic Manifestations Japan urine clothianidin | N-desmethylacetamiprid | nitenpyram | thiacloprid | thiamethoxam Details Neurologic Manifestations
23. Luben TJ, et al. (2007). Healthy Men Study (HMS) The results of this study do not support an association between exposure to levels of disinfection by-products near or below regulatory limits and adverse sperm outcomes in humans. Acetates | Trihalomethanes | Water Pollutants, Chemical Study subjects United States Acetates | Trihalomethanes Details spermatogenesis
24. Zafar MB, et al. (2001). Agent Orange may have a role in the causation of some types of cancer but we identified no significant relationship of prostate cancer with Agent Orange exposure in patients referred for prostate biopsy. Agent Orange | Defoliants, Chemical Veterans United States Details Prostatic Neoplasms
25. Chamie K, et al. (2008). Individuals who were exposed to Agent Orange had an increased incidence of prostate cancer, developed the disease at a younger age, and had a more aggressive variant than their unexposed counterparts. Agent Orange | Defoliants, Chemical Veterans United States Details Prostatic Neoplasms
26. Kern PA, et al. (2004). These data suggest that high blood tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) levels, from exposure to Agent Orange, may promote an insulin-resistant state, but the magnitude of this effect appeared to be small, such that an 18-fold increase in blood TCDD resulted in only a 10% change in insulin sensitivity. Agent Orange | Defoliants, Chemical Veterans United States serum Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin Details Insulin Resistance
27. Michalek JE, et al. (2001). We found an increased risk of 'other liver disorders' among veterans with the highest dioxin levels; whether the associations observed were causal is unclear from these data. Agent Orange | Defoliants, Chemical Veterans United States serum Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin Details Liver Diseases
28. Beard JD, et al. (2016). Genes and Environmental Exposures in Veterans with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (GENEVA) We evaluated associations between military-related factors and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using data from a case-control study of US military veterans; among some of the positive associations (needing confirmation) were exposure to military herbicides, military nasopharyngeal radium, and Agent Orange. Agent Orange | Defoliants, Chemical | Radium Subjects with disease:Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis | Veterans United States Details Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
29. Winchester PD, et al. (2009). Birth defect rates in the Unites States were found to be highest for women conceiving in the spring and summer, and elevated concentrations of agrichemicals in surface water in April-July months coincided with higher risk of birth defects; while a causal link between agrichemicals and birth defects cannot be proven from this study, an association might provide clues to common factors shared by both variables. Agrochemicals Fetuses | Pregnant females United States water Atrazine | Nitrates | Pesticides Details Congenital Abnormalities
30. Windham GC, et al. (2006). Our results suggest a potential association between autism and estimated metal concentrations, and possibly chlorinated solvents, in ambient air around the birth residence, requiring confirmation and more refined exposure assessment in future studies. Air Pollutants Controls for disease:Autism Spectrum Disorder | Subjects with disease:Autism Spectrum Disorder | Children United States air, ambient Arsenic | Benzene | Cadmium | Chromium | ethylbenzene | hydrazine | Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated | Lead | Manganese | Mercury | Metals, Heavy | Methylene Chloride | Nickel | Particulate Matter | Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons | Solvents | Styrene | Tetrachloroethylene | Toluene | Trichloroethylene | Vinyl Chloride | Xylenes Details Autism Spectrum Disorder
31. Peluso M, et al. (2010). Air pollution exposure was associated with increased formation of M1dG adducts, a biomarker of oxidative stress, and lipid peroxidation, in Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate workers and nearby residents compared with individuals living in a nonindustrial control district. Air Pollutants Workers Thailand blood Details cellular response to DNA damage stimulus
32. Pattenden S, et al. (2006). Pollution and the Young (PATY) Evidence for associations between nitrogen dioxide and respiratory symptoms was robust only for inhalation allergies. Air Pollutants Children Austria|Italy|
Netherlands|Russian Federation|
Switzerland
air, ambient Nitrogen Dioxide | Particulate Matter | Sulfur Dioxide Details Respiratory Hypersensitivity
33. Filleul L, et al. (2003). We found a significant association between daily mortality and black smoke among the elderly in Bordeaux. age | sex Air Pollutants Study subjects France air Air Pollutants Details Death
34. Strickland MJ, et al. (2011). Implications of different approaches for characterizing ambient air pollutant concentrations within the urban airshed for time-series studies and health benefits analyses. Air Pollutants United States air, ambient Carbon | Carbon Monoxide | Nitrogen Dioxide | Ozone | Particulate Matter | Sulfur Dioxide Details
35. Volk HE, et al. (2011). Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment (CHARGE) Autism was also associated with residential proximity to a freeway during the third trimester. Air Pollutants Study subjects United States Details Autistic Disorder
36. Oiamo TH, et al. (2011). Levels of exposure to pollution appears to influence utilization of health care services, but poor access to primary health care services additionally burden certain groups in Sarnia, Ontario, Canada. socioeconomic status Air Pollutants Canada air, outdoor 2-xylene | 3-xylene | 4-xylene | Benzene | ethylbenzene | Nitrogen Dioxide | Sulfur Dioxide | Toluene Details
37. Logue JM, et al. (2012). The approach demonstrated in this study may be used to assess regional and national initiatives that affect indoor air quality at the population level. Cumulative health impacts from inhalation in U.S. residences of the indoor air pollutants assessed in this study are estimated at 400-1,100 disability-adjusted life years lost annually per 100,000 persons. Air Pollutants United States 1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethane | 1,1,2-trichloroethane | 1,3-butadiene | 2-butenal | 2-ethoxyethanol | 2-ethylhexanol | 2-phenylphenol | 2-xylene | 4-dichlorobenzene | Acetaldehyde | Acrolein | Acrylonitrile | Ammonia | Arsenic | Atrazine | Benzaldehydes | Benzene | Benzo(a)pyrene | benzyl chloride | Beryllium | bromodichloromethane | bromoform | Cadmium | Carbon Disulfide | Carbon Monoxide | Carbon Tetrachloride | chlorobenzene | chlorodibromomethane | Chloroform | Chromium | cumene | Cyclohexane | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | dioctyl adipate | Ethanol | ethylbenzene | Ethyl Chloride | Ethylene Dibromide | ethylene dichloride | Formaldehyde | hexachlorobutadiene | Manganese | Mercury | methyl cellosolve | Methyl Chloride | Methylene Chloride | methylethyl ketone | methyl isobutyl ketone | Methylmethacrylate | methyl tert-butyl ether | naphthalene | n-butoxyethanol | Nitrogen Dioxide | Ozone | Particulate Matter | Pentachlorophenol | Styrene | Sulfur Dioxide | Tetrachloroethylene | tetrahydrofuran | Toluene | Trichloroethylene | Vinyl Chloride | vinylidene chloride | Xylenes Details
38. Zhang F, et al. (2011). Study on the association between ambient air pollution and daily cardiovascular and respiratory mortality in an urban district of Beijing. Air Pollutants Study subjects China air, ambient Nitrogen Dioxide | Particulate Matter | Sulfur Dioxide Details Cardiovascular Diseases | Death | Respiratory Tract Diseases
39. Ranzi A, et al. (2011). No increased risk of mortality and morbidity was found in the entire area among people living close to incinerators. The internal analysis of the cohort based on dispersion modeling found excesses of mortality for some cancer types in the highest exposure categories, especially in women. People in the highest heavy metal exposure categories tended to have a lower socioeconomic status than those in the lowest categories. The interpretation of the findings is limited given the pilot nature of the study sex | socioeconomic status Air Pollutants Study subjects Italy waste, industrial Cadmium | Dioxins | Mercury | Metals, Heavy | Nitrogen Dioxide | Particulate Matter Details Breast Neoplasms | Colorectal Neoplasms | Death | Liver Neoplasms | Neoplasms | Stomach Neoplasms
40. Lundström SL, et al. (2011). Several of the altered oxylipins have known or suspected bronchoprotective or anti-inflammatory effects, suggesting a possible reduced anti-inflammatory response in asthmatics following exposure to subway air. disease Air Pollutants Controls for disease:Asthma | Subjects with disease:Asthma Sweden lung 12,13-epoxy-9- keto-10-octadecenoic acid | 12-Hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic Acid | 13-hydroxy-9,11-octadecadienoic acid | 13-Hydroxy-octadecatrienoic acid | 13-oxo-9,11-octadecadienoic acid | 15-hydroxy-5,8,11,13,17-eicosapentaenoic acid | 15-hydroxy-5,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoic acid | 15-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid | 15-keto-5,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoic acid | 17-hydroxy-4,7,10,13,15,19-docosahexaenoic acid | 5,6-epoxy-8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid | 5-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid | 8,9-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid | 9,10,13-trihydroxyoctadec-11-enoic acid | 9,12,13-trihydroxy-10-octadecenoic acid | 9-hydroxy-10,12-octadecadienoic acid | 9-oxo-10,12-octadecadienoic acid | ALOX15 | Dinoprostone | Leukotriene B4 | PPARG | Prostaglandin D2 | PTGS1 | PTGS2 | Thromboxane B2 Details negative regulation of inflammatory response | oxylipin biosynthetic process
41. Symons JM, et al. (2006). The authors evaluated the association between particulate matter PM2.5 exposure and onset of congestive heart failure symptom exacerbation leading to hospital admission; although overall findings were not statistically significant, the identification of case events defined by an 8-hour onset period may be more relevant than either a 24-hour onset period or the admission date for estimating harmful effects. Air Pollutants Subjects with disease:Heart Failure United States air, ambient Carbon Monoxide | Nitrogen Dioxide | Ozone | Particulate Matter Details
42. Kan H, et al. (2007). Global Air Quality Guidelines set by World Health Organization | US National Ambient Air Quality Standards Our analyses provide the first statistically significant evidence in China that particulate matter (PM2.5) has an adverse effect on population health and strengthen the rationale for further limiting levels of PM2.5 in outdoor air in Shanghai. Air Pollutants Study subjects China|United States air, ambient Ozone | Particulate Matter Details Cardiovascular Diseases | Respiratory Tract Diseases
43. Karr C, et al. (2007). Subchronic and chronic particulate matter PM2.5 exposures were associated with increased risk of bronchiolitis hospitalization for infants. Air Pollutants Controls for disease:Bronchiolitis | Subjects with disease:Bronchiolitis | Infants or newborns United States air, outdoor Carbon Monoxide | Nitrogen Dioxide | Ozone | Particulate Matter Details Bronchiolitis
44. Leem JH, et al. (2006). The results of our study indicated a significant association between air pollution (even levels less than current air quality standards) and preterm delivery during the third trimester of pregnancy. Air Pollutants Pregnant females Korea, Republic of air, ambient Carbon Monoxide | Nitrogen Dioxide | Sulfur Dioxide Details Premature Birth
45. Baccarelli A, et al. (2007). Air particles may interact with cigarette smoking and increase plasma homocysteine in healthy subjects. tobacco Air Pollutants Study subjects Italy air, ambient | plasma Carbon Monoxide | Homocysteine | Nitrogen Dioxide | Ozone | Particulate Matter | Sulfur Dioxide Details
46. Sarnat SE, et al. (2006). Our results suggest that ventilation may be an important modifier of the magnitude of effect in time-series health studies, and results from time-series health studies based on 24-hr ambient concentrations are more readily interpretable for particles than for gases. Air Pollutants Study subjects United States air, ambient | air, personal Carbon | Nitrogen Dioxide | Ozone | Particulate Matter | Sulfates | Sulfur Dioxide Details
47. White N, et al. (2009). International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) The study showed a measurable health effect, both an excess of asthma symptoms in comparison with the rest of the city, and more frequent wheezing symptoms associated with an index of estimated petrochemical refinery emissions exposure. Air Pollutants Children South Africa Details Asthma
48. Kalkbrenner AE, et al. (2010). Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network (ADDM) Our screening design was limited by exposure misclassification of air pollutants and the use of an alternate developmental disorder as the control group, both of which may have biased results toward the null. Despite these limitations, methylene chloride, quinoline, and styrene emerged (based on this analysis and prior epidemiologic evidence) as candidates that warrant further investigation for a possible role in autism etiology. Air Pollutants United States air 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane | 1,3-butadiene | 1,3-dichloro-1-propene | Acetaldehyde | Acrolein | Acrylonitrile | Arsenicals | Benzene | Beryllium | Cadmium Compounds | Carbon Tetrachloride | Chloroform | Chromium Compounds | Coke | ethylbenzene | Ethylene Dibromide | ethylene dichloride | Ethylene Oxide | Formaldehyde | Hexachlorobenzene | Hexanes | hydrazine | Lead | Manganese Compounds | Mercury Compounds | Methylene Chloride | methyl tert-butyl ether | Nickel | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons | propionaldehyde | propylene dichloride | quinoline | Styrene | Tetrachloroethylene | Toluene | Trichloroethylene | Vehicle Emissions | Vinyl Chloride | Xylenes Details Autism Spectrum Disorder
49. Andersen ZJ, et al. (2012). Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Study (DCH) Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution may contribute to the development of ischemic but not hemorrhagic stroke, especially severe ischemic strokes leading to death within 30 days. Air Pollutants Study subjects Denmark Nitrogen Dioxide Details Brain Ischemia | Cerebral Hemorrhage | Stroke
50. Schildcrout JS, et al. (2006). Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) This study reports the relation between ambient concentrations of five air pollutants and asthma exacerbations: lags in carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide were positively associated with both measures of asthma exacerbation, and the 3-day moving sum of sulfur dioxide levels was marginally related to asthma symptoms, but particulate matter PM10 and ozone were unrelated to exacerbations. Air Pollutants Children Canada|United States air, ambient Carbon Monoxide | Nitrogen Dioxide | Ozone | Particulate Matter | Sulfur Dioxide Details Asthma
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