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Chemical Pharmacologic Actions

These are exposure studies associated with the chemical and all of its children.

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1–31 of 31 results.
  Reference Associated Study Title Author's Summary Study Factors Stressor Receptors Country Medium Exposure Marker Measurements Outcome
1. Wang SL, et al. (2004). This study has provided an indication of polychlorinated biphenyl, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, and dibenzofuran body burden from a group of childbearing aged women and their newborns among the general population in central Taiwan. 2,2',3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | Dibenzofurans, Polychlorinated | Endocrine Disruptors | PCB 180 | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins Pregnant females Taiwan, Province of China blood | blood, cord | milk, human | placenta Dibenzofurans, Polychlorinated | Endocrine Disruptors | Heterocyclic Compounds | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins Details
2. Smarr MM, et al. (2017). Longitudinal Investigation of Fertility and the Environment Study (LIFE) Higher quartiles of preconception urinary concentrations of methyl paraben and ethyl paraben among female partners were associated with reduced couple fecundity in partner-specific and couple-based exposure models. sex 4-hydroxybenzoic acid | Anti-Infective Agents | benzylparaben | butylparaben | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | heptylparaben | methylparaben | Parabens | propylparaben | protocatechuic acid | triclocarban | Triclosan Study subjects United States urine 4-hydroxybenzoic acid | benzylparaben | butylparaben | Creatinine | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | heptylparaben | methylparaben | propylparaben | protocatechuic acid | triclocarban | Triclosan Details Infertility, Female | reproductive process
3. Kaye JA, et al. (2014). The results support a comparatively high adjusted relative risk of liver injury among patients exposed concurrently to multiple antimicrobials and modest elevations in the risk for several antimicrobials used alone; however, we found little evidence of any strong effect of commonly used antimicrobials on the risk of liver injury. Amoxicillin | Anti-Infective Agents | Clavulanic Acid | Doxycycline | Levofloxacin | Moxifloxacin Study subjects United States Details Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury
4. Solfrizzi V, et al. (2013). Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging (ILSA) Using a large, population-based cohort, we investigated whether angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors collectively as a 'class' and as sub-groups according to their chemical structures and drug potencies, compared with other antihypertensive agents and beyond the natural course in time of the hypertension, reduced the incidence of mild cognitive impairment in cognitively normal individuals. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors | Enalapril | Lisinopril Subjects with disease:Hypertension Italy Details Cognitive Dysfunction
5. Wilker E, et al. (2009). Normative Aging Study (NAS) Particulate Matter <=2.5 microns in diameter influences blood pressure and autonomic function. This effect is modified by genes and drugs that also act along this pathway. genetics Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists | Particulate Matter Subjects with gene influence:ITPR2 | Military personnel | Subjects with gene influence:MMP1 | Subjects with gene influence:PHF11 United States air Particulate Matter Details regulation of blood pressure
6. Adgent MA, et al. (2015). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Antibiotics, but not triclosan, are negatively associated with urinary enterolactone; further study of triclosan exposure and enterolactone production may be needed to better understand positive associations among women. age | body mass index | diet | race | sex | socioeconomic status Anti-Bacterial Agents | Lincomycin | Macrolides | Quinolones | Sulfonamides | Triclosan Study subjects United States urine 2,3-bis(3'-hydroxybenzyl)butyrolactone | Triclosan Details
7. Mogensen DM, et al. (2017). Odense Child Cohort In this preliminary study, the use of antifungal medicine in the prenatal window of male genital development between 8-14 weeks of gestation was associated with a larger reduction in ano-scrotal distance than exposure outside this window. age | sex Antifungal Agents | Fluconazole Children | Fetuses | Pregnant females Denmark Details Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects | male genitalia morphogenesis
8. Guthikonda K, et al. (2014). This study represents the first report of an interaction of genetic variation and DNA-methylation of GATA3 on the risk for asthma at 18 years, which is modified by the use of oral contraceptive pills and age at menarche. Contraceptives, Oral Subjects with gene influence:GATA3 United Kingdom Details Asthma
9. Rava M, et al. (2017). Epidemiological family-based study of the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA) | European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) | Swiss study on Air Pollution and Lung Diseases In Adults (SAPALDIA) This study identified interactions between genetic variants near or within five genes, PLA2G4A, PLA2R1, RELA, PRKD1 and PRKCA, and occupational exposures to low molecular weight agents or irritants for current adult-onset asthma. Detergents | Disinfectants Subjects with gene influence:PLA2G4A | Subjects with gene influence:PLA2R1 | Subjects with gene influence:PRKCA | Subjects with gene influence:PRKD1 | Subjects with gene influence:RELA | Workers France|Switzerland Details Asthma, Occupational
10. Schlumpf M, et al. (2010). We present data on chemicals in human milk of 54 mother/child pairs, where for the first time cosmetic UV filters (sunscreens), synthetic musks, parabens, and phthalate metabolites were analyzed in the same sample along with persistent organochlor pollutants, polybrominated diphenylethers, and polychlorinated biphenyls. diet Dibutyl Phthalate | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | diisobutyl phthalate | Parabens | Perfume | Pesticides | Polybrominated Biphenyls | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | Sunscreening Agents Infants or newborns | Mothers Switzerland milk, human 2,2',3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',4,4',5-brominated diphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,4'-trichlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',5'-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,5,2',5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl | acetyl methyl tetramethyl tetralin | alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane | beta-hexachlorocyclohexane | Chlordan | chlorpyrifos-ethyl | DDT | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | Dieldrin | enzacamene | ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | galaxolide | Heptachlor | hexabrominated diphenyl ether 153 | hexabromodiphenyl ether 154 | Hexachlorobenzene | Hexachlorocyclohexane | homosalate | methylparaben | mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate | monobutyl phthalate | mono-isobutyl phthalate | musk ketone | musk xylene | nonachlor | octocrylene | octyl dimethyl 4-aminobenzoic acid | o,p'-DDT | oxybenzone | oxychlordane | PCB 180 | pentabrominated diphenyl ether 100 | phantolid | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | propylparaben | Toxaphene | tribromodiphenyl ether 28 Details
11. No authors listed. (2011). National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) | Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks (SENSOR) To assess the frequency of illness and injury related to pool chemicals, Centers for Disease Control analyzed data for the period 2002-2008 from six states participating in the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risk (SENSOR)-Pesticides surveillance program and from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). Disinfectants Study subjects United States Details Acute Disease | Occupational Diseases | Respiratory Tract Diseases
12. Park DU, et al. (2015). The use of household humidifier disinfectants was associated with humidifier disinfectant-associated lung injury risk in a dose-response manner. Disinfectants Study subjects Korea, Republic of Disinfectants Details Lung Injury
13. Hahn S, et al. (2010). Exposure to biocides from household products may contribute to induction of sensitization in the population. Disinfectants Germany 1,2-benzisothiazoline-3-one | 2-Propanol | Benzalkonium Compounds | Benzoates | bronopol | chloroacetamide | Chlorpyrifos | d,d-T80-prallethrin | Dichlorvos | Formaldehyde | Glutaral | Hydrogen Peroxide | phenoxyethanol | phoxim | picaridin | Sodium Hypochlorite | Thiazoles | trichloroisocyanuric acid | Triclosan | troclosene Details
14. Park DU, et al. (2015). We conducted a comprehensive humidifier disinfectant exposure characterization for 374 subjects with lung disease who presumed their disease was related to humidifier disinfectant use (patient group) and for 303 of their family members (family group) for an ongoing epidemiological study. Disinfectants Children | Controls for disease:Lung Diseases | Subjects with disease:Lung Diseases | Pregnant females Korea, Republic of Disinfectants Details
15. Brevard TA, et al. (2003). In this study, we addressed the need for more information on chemical exposures in the workplace and found that working youths are at a higher risk of acute occupational disinfectant related illness than are adults. Disinfectants | Halogens | Phenols | Quaternary Ammonium Compounds Children United States Details Acute Disease | Occupational Diseases
16. Pastor-Barriuso R, et al. (2016). Multi-case Control Cancer Study in Spain (MCC-Spain) This is the first study to show a strong positive association between serum total xenoestrogen burden and breast cancer risk, highlighting the importance of evaluating xenoestrogen mixtures, rather than single compounds, when studying hormone-related cancers. Endocrine Disruptors Controls for disease:Breast Neoplasms | Subjects with disease:Breast Neoplasms Spain serum 2,2',3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | Estrogens | Hexachlorobenzene | PCB 180 Details Breast Neoplasms
17. La Rocca C, et al. (2014). Our study indicates the relevance of the living environment when investigating the exposure to endocrine disrupters and the modulation of nuclear receptors (as a suitable biomarker of the effect) to assess the endocrine disrupters impact on reproductive health. Endocrine Disruptors Controls for disease:Infertility, Female | Subjects with disease:Infertility, Female Italy blood | leukocyte, mononuclear | serum AHR | AR | bisphenol A | ESR1 | ESR2 | mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate | NR1I2 | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Details
18. Rudel RA, et al. (2003). This study provides a basis for prioritizing toxicology and exposure research for individual endocrine-disrupting compounds and mixtures and provides new tools for exposure assessment in health studies. Endocrine Disruptors United States air, indoor | dust 2,2',4,4',5-brominated diphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3-dibromopropanol | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,4-dichlorophenol | 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone | 2,5,2',5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl | 2-phenylphenol | 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol | 4-cumylphenol | 4-nitrophenol | 4-nonylphenol | 4-octylphenol | 4-phenylphenol | alachlor | anthracene | bendiocarb | benz(a)anthracene | Benzo(a)pyrene | bisphenol A | butylbenzyl phthalate | butylparaben | butylphen | Carbaryl | Chlordan | Chlorpyrifos | cypermethrin | DDT | Diazinon | Dibutyl Phthalate | Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | Dicofol | dicyclohexyl phthalate | Dieldrin | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | diethyl phthalate | diisobutyl phthalate | di-n-hexyl phthalate | di-n-propylphthalate | dioctyl adipate | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | Heptachlor | Hexachlorocyclohexane | Malathion | Methoxychlor | methylparaben | Methyl Parathion | pentabrominated diphenyl ether 100 | Pentachlorophenol | Permethrin | Piperonyl Butoxide | prometone | Propoxur | pyrene | tetrachloroisophthalonitrile | Trifluralin Details
19. Grindler NM, et al. (2015). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) This study documents an association between numerous endocrine-disrupting chemicals and earlier age at menopause (1.9 to 3.8 years earlier than women with lower levels of these chemicals); the result suggests that increasing serum- or urine-levels of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (not just high absolute levels) are associated with loss of ovarian function. sex Endocrine Disruptors Study subjects United States serum | urine 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran | 2,2',3,3',4,4',5-heptachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,4',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | beta-hexachlorocyclohexane | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | Mirex | mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate | mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate Details menopause
20. Zota AR, et al. (2010). Cape Cod Breast Cancer and Environment Study Results of this study suggest that cleaning product use contributes to increased breast cancer risk. Endocrine Disruptors Study subjects United States Endocrine Disruptors Details Breast Neoplasms
21. Birks L, et al. (2016). Developing a Child Cohort Research Strategy for Europe (CHICOS) | Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts (ENRIECO) Results from our large population-based birth cohort design indicate that employment during pregnancy in occupations classified as possibly or probably exposed to endocrine-disrupting chemicals was associated with an increased risk of term low birth weight. Endocrine Disruptors Infants or newborns | Pregnant females | Workers Denmark|France|
Details Birth Weight | Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
22. Teitelbaum SL, et al. (2008). We evaluated intraindividual temporal variability in 19 urinary biomarkers of endocrine disrupters (eight phthalate metabolites from six phthalate diesters, six phytoestrogens, and five phenols) among New York City minority children. Endocrine Disruptors Children United States urine 2,3-bis(3'-hydroxybenzyl)butane-1,4-diol | 2,3-bis(3'-hydroxybenzyl)butyrolactone | 2,4-dichlorophenol | 2,5-dichlorophenol | 2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate | 2-phenylphenol | bisphenol A | daidzein | Equol | Genistein | mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate | mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate | mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate | mono-benzyl phthalate | monobutyl phthalate | monoethyl phthalate | mono-isobutyl phthalate | monomethyl phthalate | O-desmethylangolensin | oxybenzone | Triclosan Details
23. Ihde ES, et al. (2015). Endocrine disrupting environmental chemicals were detected in all children in the study, with measurable levels of 4-nonylphenol in nearly one third of subjects; this is the first known published study of 4-nonylphenol levels in American children; no associations were found between the urine levels of these chemicals tested and estrogen metabolites. Endocrine Disruptors Children United States urine 16-hydroxyestrone | 2-hydroxyestradiol | 2-hydroxyestrone | 2-methoxyestrone | 4-hydroxyestrone-4-methyl ether | 4-hydroxyestrone | 4-nonylphenol | bisphenol A | butylparaben | Estrogens | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | methylparaben | mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate | mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate | mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate | monoethyl phthalate | propylparaben | Triclosan Details estrogen metabolic process
24. de Cock M, et al. (2014). We assessed the association between prenatal exposure to various endocrine disrupting chemicals and child growth during the first year; exposure to phthalates and DDE was associated with body mass index as well as with head circumference during the first year after birth; these results should be interpreted with caution though, due to the limited sample size. Endocrine Disruptors Infants or newborns Netherlands blood, cord | milk, human 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate | mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate | perfluorooctane sulfonic acid | perfluorooctanoic acid Details developmental growth | head development
25. Caldwell DJ, et al. (2010). The consistently large margins of exposure and margins of safety strongly suggest that prescribed and total estrogens that may potentially be present in drinking water in the United States are not causing adverse effects in residents, including sensitive subpopulations. Estrogens Children | Study subjects United States water, drinking Estradiol | Estriol | Estrogens | Estrone | Ethinyl Estradiol Details
26. Z'gambo J, et al. (2016). This study sought to characterize acute poisoning with regard to demographic factors (i.e. age, sex and residence), common toxic agents used and their case fatality rates as well as the overall mortality rate of acute poisoning. Narcotics | Pesticides Children | Study subjects Zambia Details Poisoning
27. Joensen UN, et al. (2017). Our results indicate that loss-of-function mutation carriers for the filaggrin gene may have a higher internal exposure to some non-persistent chemicals such as parabens, independently of atopic dermatitis; whether this may be due to increased trans-epidermal absorption or elevated skin exposure to moisturizers cannot be concluded from this study. Parabens | Phenols | Sunscreening Agents Subjects with gene influence:FLG Denmark urine 2,2',4,4'-tetrahydroxybenzophenone | 2,4,5-trichlorophenol | 2,4-dichlorophenol | 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone | 2,5-dichlorophenol | 2-phenylphenol | 4-hydroxybenzophenone | 4-phenylphenol | benzophenone | benzylparaben | bisphenol A | butylparaben | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | methylparaben | oxybenzone | propylparaben | Triclosan Details
28. Joensen UN, et al. (2018). Associations between male reproductive health parameters and urinary levels of bisphenol A and benzophenones (e.g., BP-3, BP-1 and 4-HBP) were observed in filaggrin gene mutation carriers but not in controls from the same study population. Parabens | Phenols | Sunscreening Agents Subjects with gene influence:FLG | Study subjects Denmark urine 2,2',4,4'-tetrahydroxybenzophenone | 2,4,5-trichlorophenol | 2,4-dichlorophenol | 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone | 2,5-dichlorophenol | 2-phenylphenol | 3-benzylidene camphor | 4-hydroxybenzophenone | 4-methylbenzophenone | 4-phenylphenol | benzophenone | benzylparaben | bisphenol A | butylparaben | enzacamene | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | methylparaben | oxybenzone | triclocarban | Triclosan Details follicle-stimulating hormone secretion | negative regulation of flagellated sperm motility | positive regulation of estradiol secretion | positive regulation of testosterone secretion | spermatogenesis
29. Reynolds P, et al. (2005). The results from this study provide no evidence that California women living in areas of recent, high agricultural pesticide use experience higher rates of breast cancer. Pesticides Subjects with disease:Breast Neoplasms United States Carcinogens | Cholinesterase Inhibitors | Diuron | Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated | methyl bromide | Omite | oryzalin | Simazine Details Breast Neoplasms
30. Upson K, et al. (2016). Study of Environment, Lifestyle & Fibroids (SELF) Our observation that women fed soy formula as infants have larger fibroids than unexposed women provides further support for persistent effects of early life phytoestrogen exposure on the uterus. diet Phytoestrogens Study subjects United States Details Leiomyoma
31. Colvin L, et al. (2012). Children born to mothers using a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor were more likely to be admitted to a hospital in the first years of life, and although the numbers of deaths in the first year of life were small, the increased risk is a new finding and should be investigated further. Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors Pregnant females Australia Details Death | Fetal Diseases
1–31 of 31 results.