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Chemical Hydroxybenzoates

These are exposure studies associated with the chemical and all of its children.

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1–39 of 39 results.
  Reference Associated Study Title Author's Summary Study Factors Stressor Receptors Country Medium Exposure Marker Measurements Outcome
1. Goldner WS, et al. (2010). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) These data support a role of organochlorines, in addition to fungicides, in the etiology of thyroid disease among female spouses enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | alachlor | Aldrin | Atrazine | Benomyl | butylate | Captan | Carbaryl | Carbon Disulfide | Carbon Tetrachloride | Chlordan | chlorimuron ethyl | Chlorpyrifos | cyanazine | DDT | Diazinon | Dicamba | Dichlorvos | EPTC | Fonofos | Fungicides, Industrial | glyphosate | Heptachlor | Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated | imazethapyr | Insecticides | Lindane | Malathion | mancozeb | Maneb | metalaxyl | methyl bromide | metolachlor | metribuzin | Paraquat | Parathion | pendimethalin | Petroleum | terbufos | tetrachloroisophthalonitrile | Trifluralin Study subjects United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Hyperthyroidism | Hypothyroidism
2. Goldner WS, et al. (2013). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) We found statistically significant associations between specific herbicides and insecticides and hypothyroid disease in male pesticide applicators. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | alachlor | Aldrin | butylate | Carbofuran | Chlordan | DDT | Diazinon | Dicamba | fenoprop | Heptachlor | Lindane | Malathion | metalaxyl | Parathion | Petroleum | Toxaphene Workers United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Hyperthyroidism | Hypothyroidism
3. Kamel F, et al. (2007). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) This study suggests that exposure to certain pesticides may increase Parkinson's disease risk. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | Benomyl | butylate | Carbon Disulfide | Carbon Tetrachloride | cyanazine | Dicamba | Ethylene Dibromide | Lindane | mancozeb | Maneb | methyl bromide | Paraquat | pendimethalin | Pesticides | Phorate | tetrachloroisophthalonitrile Study subjects | Workers United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Parkinson Disease
4. LaRocca J, et al. (2015). Harvard Epigenetic Birth Cohort (HEBC) These results suggest that prenatal phenol and phthalate exposure is associated with altered microRNA expression in placenta, suggesting a potential mechanism of endocrine-disrupting chemicals toxicity in humans. 2,4-dichlorophenol | 2,5-dichlorophenol | bisphenol A | butylbenzyl phthalate | butylparaben | Dibutyl Phthalate | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | diethyl phthalate | diisobutyl phthalate | diisodecyl phthalate | diisononyl phthalate | methylparaben | oxybenzone | Parabens | Phenols | Phthalic Acids | propylparaben | Triclosan Infants or newborns | Pregnant females United States placenta | urine 2,4-dichlorophenol | 2,5-dichlorophenol | 2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate | bisphenol A | butylparaben | diisodecyl phthalate | diisononyl phthalate | methylparaben | MIR142 | MIR15A | MIR185 | mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate | mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate | mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate | mono-benzyl phthalate | monobutyl phthalate | monoethyl phthalate | mono-isobutyl phthalate | oxybenzone | propylparaben | Triclosan Details regulation of gene silencing by miRNA
5. Carreón T, et al. (2005). Upper Midwest Health Study (UMHS) Results show that exposure to pesticides was not associated with an increased risk of intracranial gliomas in women. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | 2-chloro-N-(ethoxymethyl)-N-(2-methyl-6-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)acetamide | alachlor | Aniline Compounds | Arsenicals | Atrazine | bentazone | Benzoic Acid | Carbamates | cyanazine | DDT | Diazinon | Dicamba | Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated | imazethapyr | Inorganic Chemicals | Malathion | metolachlor | Organophosphates | pendimethalin | Pesticides | Triazines | Trifluralin Controls for disease:Glioma | Subjects with disease:Glioma United States Details Glioma
6. Hoppin JA, et al. (2017). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) We evaluated the association of currently used pesticides with allergic and non-allergic wheeze among male farmers, and our results implicate several pesticides that are commonly used in agricultural and residential settings with adverse respiratory effects. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | acetochlor | Atrazine | bentazone | Carbaryl | Chlorpyrifos | clomazone | clopyralid | cyfluthrin | Dicamba | Dimethoate | Disulfoton | fenoxaprop ethyl | fluazifop-butyl | glyphosate | Herbicides | imazaquin | Insecticides | Malathion | mesotrione | metolachlor | N-(2,6-difluorophenyl)-5-methyl(1,2,4)-triazol(1,5-a)pyrimidine-2-sulfonamide | nicosulfuron | Permethrin | Petroleum | Picloram | Pyrethrins | Rodenticides | Simazine | triclopyr | Trifluralin | Warfarin Workers United States Details Respiratory Sounds | Rhinitis, Allergic
7. Hoppin JA, et al. (2002). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) Prevalence of wheeze was associated with individual pesticides independent of animals, crops, and grains. disease 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | alachlor | Aldicarb | aluminum phosphide | Atrazine | Benomyl | butylate | Captan | Carbaryl | Carbofuran | chlorimuron ethyl | Chlorpyrifos | Coumaphos | cyanazine | Diazinon | Dicamba | Dichlorvos | EPTC | Fonofos | glyphosate | imazethapyr | Lindane | Malathion | Maneb | metalaxyl | metolachlor | metribuzin | Paraquat | Parathion | pendimethalin | Permethrin | Petroleum | Phorate | terbufos | tetrachloroisophthalonitrile | Trichlorfon | Trifluralin | Ziram Subjects with disease:Asthma | Subjects with disease:Ige Responsiveness, Atopic | Workers United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Respiratory Sounds
8. Nazaroff W, et al. (2012). The study introduces the intake-to-production ratio as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical production results in human exposure. This ratio is well suited as an aggregate metric of exposure intensity for characterizing population-level exposure to synthesized chemicals, particularly those that move fairly rapidly from manufacture to human intake and have relatively stable production and intake rates. 4-dichlorobenzene | bisphenol A | butylbenzyl phthalate | Dibutyl Phthalate | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | diethyl phthalate | diisobutyl phthalate | methylparaben | Triclosan Study subjects United States 4-dichlorobenzene | bisphenol A | butylbenzyl phthalate | Dibutyl Phthalate | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | diethyl phthalate | diisobutyl phthalate | methylparaben | Triclosan Details
9. Smarr MM, et al. (2017). Longitudinal Investigation of Fertility and the Environment Study (LIFE) Higher quartiles of preconception urinary concentrations of methyl paraben and ethyl paraben among female partners were associated with reduced couple fecundity in partner-specific and couple-based exposure models. sex 4-hydroxybenzoic acid | Anti-Infective Agents | benzylparaben | butylparaben | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | heptylparaben | methylparaben | Parabens | propylparaben | protocatechuic acid | triclocarban | Triclosan Study subjects United States urine 4-hydroxybenzoic acid | benzylparaben | butylparaben | Creatinine | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | heptylparaben | methylparaben | propylparaben | protocatechuic acid | triclocarban | Triclosan Details Infertility, Female | reproductive process
10. Dodson RE, et al. (2012). Common products contain complex mixtures of Endocrine-disrupting compounds and asthma-related compounds. 4-nonylphenol | 4-tert-octylphenol | benzophenone | benzyl acetate | bisphenol A | butylbenzyl phthalate | butylparaben | decamethylcyclopentasiloxane | Dibutyl Phthalate | dicyclohexyl phthalate | diethanolamine | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | diethyl phthalate | diisobutyl phthalate | diisononyl phthalate | di-n-hexyl phthalate | di-n-octyl phthalate | di-n-propylphthalate | Ethanolamine | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | Eugenol | galaxolide | limonene | linalool | methyleugenol | methylionone | methylparaben | methyl salicylate | musk ketone | musk xylene | n-butoxyethanol | octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane | octylmethoxycinnamate | oxybenzone | phenoxyethanol | Phenyl Ethers | Phenylethyl Alcohol | pichtosin | triclocarban | Triclosan United States air freshener | air freshener, car | baking soda | bar soap | body lotion | body wash | Borax | car interior cleaner | carpet cleaner | cat litter | conditioner | deodorant | diaper | dish liquid | dishwasher detergent | dryer sheet | fabric refresher | facial cleanser | facial lotion | floor cleaner | foundation | fragrance or perfume | glass cleaner | hair gel | hair spray or mousse or gel | hand sanitizer | hand soap | laundry bleach | laundry detergent | lip balm | lipstick | mascara | nail polish | pillow protector | polish or wax | scrubbing powder | shampoo | shaving cream | shower curtain, vinyl | stain remover | sunscreen | sunscreen composite | surface cleaner | toilet bowl cleaner | toothpaste | tub and tile cleaner | wet mop 4-nonylphenol | 4-tert-octylphenol | benzophenone | benzyl acetate | bisphenol A | butylbenzyl phthalate | butylparaben | decamethylcyclopentasiloxane | Dibutyl Phthalate | dicyclohexyl phthalate | diethanolamine | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | diethyl phthalate | diisobutyl phthalate | diisononyl phthalate | di-n-hexyl phthalate | di-n-octyl phthalate | di-n-propylphthalate | Ethanolamine | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | Eugenol | galaxolide | limonene | linalool | methyleugenol | methylionone | methylparaben | methyl salicylate | musk ketone | musk xylene | n-butoxyethanol | octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane | octylmethoxycinnamate | oxybenzone | phenoxyethanol | Phenyl Ethers | Phenylethyl Alcohol | pichtosin | triclocarban | Triclosan Details
11. Christensen CH, et al. (2016). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) In this case-control study nested within the Agricultural Health Study cohort, we evaluated evidence of statistical interaction between pesticide exposure and single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes involved in steroid hormone signaling, metabolism, or regulation with the risk of prostate cancer. genetics alachlor | butylate | Carbaryl | Dicamba | Fonofos | Malathion | terbufos Subjects with gene influence:ESR1 | Subjects with gene influence:HSD17B4 | Subjects with gene influence:SHBG | Subjects with gene influence:SRD5A1 | Subjects with gene influence:SULT2A1 | Workers United States Details Prostatic Neoplasms
12. Alavanja MC, et al. (2004). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) We also found that four heavily used agricultural pesticides, including two herbicides (i.e., metolachlor and pendimethalin) and two insecticides (i.e., chlorpyrifos and diazinon), were associated with a significant excess lung cancer risk in the Agricultural Health Study cohort. Asbestos | Carbofuran | Chlorpyrifos | Diazinon | Dicamba | Dieldrin | Lead | metolachlor | pendimethalin | Tobacco Smoke Pollution Study subjects | Workers United States Details Agricultural Workers' Diseases | Lung Neoplasms
13. Loeb S, et al. (2015). Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Trial This study suggests that selenium supplements may reduce genetic risk of advanced prostate cancer, whereas aspirin, ibuprofen, and vegetables may reduce genetic risk of nonadvanced prostate cancer. genetics Aspirin | Ibuprofen | Selenium Controls for disease:Prostatic Neoplasms | Subjects with disease:Prostatic Neoplasms United States Details Prostatic Neoplasms
14. Larsson K, et al. (2014). COnsortium to Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale (COPHES) | DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES) The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the levels of 10 phthalate metabolites, 5 parabens, bisphenol A and triclosan in urine from Swedish children (6-11 years old) and their mothers, in relation to demographics, lifestyle, housing and different potential sources of exposure to these chemicals. bisphenol A | butylbenzyl phthalate | butylparaben | Dibutyl Phthalate | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | diethyl phthalate | diisononyl phthalate | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | methylparaben | mono-benzyl phthalate | monobutyl phthalate | monoethyl phthalate | propylparaben | Triclosan Children | Mothers Sweden urine 2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate | bisphenol A | butylparaben | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | diisononyl phthalate | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | methylparaben | mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate | mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate | mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate | mono-benzyl phthalate | monobutyl phthalate | mono(carboxy-isooctyl)phthalate | monoethyl phthalate | propylparaben | Triclosan Details
15. Carwile JL, et al. (2009). Despite within-person variability resulting from other sources of BPA exposure, a measurable increase in urinary BPA resulted from only 1 week of exposure to beverages contained in polycarbonate bottles. bisphenol A | methylparaben | oxybenzone | propylparaben | Triclosan Study subjects United States urine bisphenol A | methylparaben | oxybenzone | propylparaben | Triclosan Details
16. Calafat AM, et al. (2009). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) In this follow-up study of premature infants receiving care in two neonatal intensive care units, we found moderate to strong institution-adjusted correlations between urinary concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA) and the metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), indicating that BPA and DEHP may share common exposure sources. bisphenol A | methylparaben | oxybenzone | propylparaben | Triclosan Children | Infants or newborns | Study subjects United States urine bisphenol A | methylparaben | oxybenzone | propylparaben | Triclosan Details
17. Scinicariello F, et al. (2016). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) We examined the association of bisphenol A (BPA), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), triclosan (TCS), and parabens with serum total testosterone (TT) levels in child and adolescent participants (ages 6-19 years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012. sex bisphenol A | oxybenzone | Parabens | Triclosan Children United States serum | urine bisphenol A | Cotinine | Creatinine | oxybenzone | Parabens | Testosterone | Triclosan Details testosterone biosynthetic process
18. Harley KG, et al. (2016). Health and Environmental Research on Makeup of Salinas Adolescents (HERMOSA) Study | National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) This study demonstrates that techniques available to consumers, such as choosing personal care products that are labelled to be free of phthalates, parabens, triclosan, and benzophenone-3, can reduce personal exposure to possible endocrine disrupting chemicals. butylparaben | Dibutyl Phthalate | diethyl phthalate | diisobutyl phthalate | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | methylparaben | oxybenzone | propylparaben | Triclosan Children United States urine butylparaben | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | methylparaben | monobutyl phthalate | monoethyl phthalate | mono-isobutyl phthalate | oxybenzone | propylparaben | Triclosan Details
19. Shirai S, et al. (2013). The concentrations of parabens in urine taken from pregnant women in Japan were frequently found to be quantifiable, indicating widespread exposure and suggesting dermal route (probably from personal care products); however, there was no statistical association with the anogenital index of male offspring, suggesting that parabens were not estrogenically active at the exposure level. butylparaben | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | methylparaben | Parabens | propylparaben Infants or newborns | Pregnant females Japan urine 4-hydroxybenzoic acid | butylparaben | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | methylparaben | propylparaben Details Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects | male genitalia development
20. Calafat AM, et al. (2010). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) In summary, we found significant differences in concentrations of parabens across demographic groups, particularly those associated with sex and race/ethnicity. race | sex butylparaben | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | methylparaben | propylparaben Study subjects United States urine butylparaben | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | methylparaben | propylparaben Details
21. Philippat C, et al. (2013). Study of Advanced Reproductive Age and Environmental Health (SARAEH) Amniotic fluid detection frequencies for most phenols were low; the reproducibility of urine measures was poor for bisphenol A, but good for the other phenols; collecting multiple urine samples during pregnancy is an option to reduce exposure measurement error. Creatinine | Phenols Pregnant females United States amniotic fluid | urine 2,4-dichlorophenol | 2,5-dichlorophenol | bisphenol A | butylparaben | Creatinine | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | methylparaben | oxybenzone | propylparaben | Triclosan Details
22. Schlumpf M, et al. (2010). We present data on chemicals in human milk of 54 mother/child pairs, where for the first time cosmetic UV filters (sunscreens), synthetic musks, parabens, and phthalate metabolites were analyzed in the same sample along with persistent organochlor pollutants, polybrominated diphenylethers, and polychlorinated biphenyls. diet Dibutyl Phthalate | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | diisobutyl phthalate | Parabens | Perfume | Pesticides | Polybrominated Biphenyls | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | Sunscreening Agents Infants or newborns | Mothers Switzerland milk, human 2,2',3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,2',4,4',5-brominated diphenyl ether | 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,4'-trichlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,4,5,2',5'-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,5,2',5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl | acetyl methyl tetramethyl tetralin | alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane | beta-hexachlorocyclohexane | Chlordan | chlorpyrifos-ethyl | DDT | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | Dieldrin | enzacamene | ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | galaxolide | Heptachlor | hexabrominated diphenyl ether 153 | hexabromodiphenyl ether 154 | Hexachlorobenzene | homosalate | Lindane | methylparaben | mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate | monobutyl phthalate | mono-isobutyl phthalate | musk ketone | musk xylene | nonachlor | octocrylene | octyl dimethyl 4-aminobenzoic acid | o,p'-DDT | oxybenzone | oxychlordane | PCB 180 | pentabrominated diphenyl ether 100 | phantolid | Polychlorinated Biphenyls | propylparaben | Toxaphene | tribromodiphenyl ether 28 Details
23. Samanic C, et al. (2006). Agricultural Health Study (AHS) Although associations between exposure and lung and colon cancer were observed, we did not find clear evidence for an association between dicamba exposure and cancer risk. Dicamba Workers United States Details Colonic Neoplasms | Lung Neoplasms
24. Rudel RA, et al. (2003). This study provides a basis for prioritizing toxicology and exposure research for individual endocrine-disrupting compounds and mixtures and provides new tools for exposure assessment in health studies. Endocrine Disruptors United States air, indoor | dust 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether | 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl | 2,3-dibromopropanol | 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl | 2,4-dichlorophenol | 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone | 2,5,2',5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl | 2-phenylphenol | 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol | 4-cumylphenol | 4-nitrophenol | 4-nonylphenol | 4-octylphenol | 4-phenylphenol | alachlor | anthracene | bendiocarb | benz(a)anthracene | Benzo(a)pyrene | bisphenol A | butylbenzyl phthalate | butylparaben | butylphen | Carbaryl | Chlordan | Chlorpyrifos | cypermethrin | DDT | Diazinon | Dibutyl Phthalate | Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | Dicofol | dicyclohexyl phthalate | Dieldrin | Diethylhexyl Phthalate | diethyl phthalate | diisobutyl phthalate | di-n-hexyl phthalate | di-n-propylphthalate | dioctyl adipate | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | Heptachlor | Lindane | Malathion | Methoxychlor | methylparaben | Methyl Parathion | pentabromodiphenyl ether | Pentachlorophenol | Permethrin | Piperonyl Butoxide | prometone | Propoxur | pyrene | tetrachloroisophthalonitrile | Trifluralin Details
25. Ihde ES, et al. (2015). Endocrine disrupting environmental chemicals were detected in all children in the study, with measurable levels of 4-nonylphenol in nearly one third of subjects; this is the first known published study of 4-nonylphenol levels in American children; no associations were found between the urine levels of these chemicals tested and estrogen metabolites. Endocrine Disruptors Children United States urine 16-hydroxyestrone | 2-hydroxyestradiol | 2-hydroxyestrone | 2-methoxyestrone | 4-hydroxyestrone-4-methyl ether | 4-hydroxyestrone | 4-nonylphenol | bisphenol A | butylparaben | Estrogens | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | methylparaben | mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate | mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate | mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate | monoethyl phthalate | propylparaben | Triclosan Details estrogen metabolic process
26. Kang S, et al. (2013). The present study was designed to determine urinary paraben levels among pregnant women and their matching newborn infants, and the association between paraben levels and stress markers; methylparaben was detected as the highest and butylparaben as the lowest in both pregnant women and their infants; levels of ethyl paraben were 4-9 fold higher than found in pregnant women of other countries. body mass index ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | methylparaben | Parabens Infants or newborns | Pregnant females Korea, Republic of urine 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine | butylparaben | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | Malondialdehyde | methylparaben | propylparaben Details response to stress
27. Ward MH, et al. (2006). Our results indicate that agricultural crop maps may be a useful method for estimating levels of herbicides in homes from nearby crop fields. Herbicides Study subjects | Workers United States dust, house 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid | acetochlor | alachlor | Atrazine | bentazone | Dicamba | fluazifop-butyl | Herbicides | metolachlor | pendimethalin | Trifluralin Details
28. Philippat C, et al. (2014). EDEN Our study suggested associations between prenatal exposure to parabens and triclosan and prenatal or early postnatal growth; however, we relied on only one spot urine sample to assess exposure, and because of the high variability in phenol urinary concentrations reported during pregnancy, using only one sample may result in exposure misclassification (in particular for bisphenol A). methylparaben | Phenols | Triclosan Infants or newborns | Pregnant females France urine 2,4-dichlorophenol | 2,5-dichlorophenol | bisphenol A | butylparaben | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | methylparaben | oxybenzone | propylparaben | Triclosan Details Birth Weight | Fetal Growth Retardation | head development
29. Genuis SJ, et al. (2013). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) It is evident that exposure to assorted parabens is a routine event for many, if not most individuals, including pregnant women, in urban Alberta (Canada), and non-pregnant female values differed from males for ethyl paraben. sex Parabens Pregnant females | Study subjects Canada|United States urine butylparaben | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | isobutylparaben | methylparaben | propylparaben Details
30. Ye X, et al. (2006). Conjugated parabens are present in urine and could be used as exposure biomarkers, and that these conjugates appear to be the main urinary products of parabens may be important for risk assessment. Parabens Study subjects United States urine benzylparaben | butylparaben | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | methylparaben | propylparaben Details
31. Pycke BF, et al. (2015). This study is the first to report the occurrence of parabens in human umbilical cord blood; maternal exposure to parabens is widespread, and substantial differences exist between communities and countries both in the spectrum and degree of paraben exposures. Parabens Infants or newborns | Pregnant females United States plasma, cord | urine benzylparaben | butylparaben | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | methylparaben | Parabens | propylparaben Details
32. Smith KW, et al. (2012). Urinary paraben concentrations were higher and more variable in women compared with men, and during pregnancy compared with before pregnancy; a single urine sample may reasonably represent an individual's exposure over several months and may reasonably classify gestational exposure. sex Parabens Pregnant females | Study subjects United States urine butylparaben | methylparaben | propylparaben Details
33. Meeker JD, et al. (2013). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) | Puerto Rico Testsite for Exploring Contamination Threats (PROTECT) We found positive associations in pregnant women in Puerto Rico between biomarker concentrations with self-reported use of liquid soap (triclosan), sunscreen (benzophenone-3), lotion (benzophenone-3 and parabens), and cosmetics (parabens); our results can inform future epidemiology studies and strategies to reduce exposure to these chemicals or their precursors. Parabens | Phenols Pregnant females | Study subjects Puerto Rico|United States urine 2,4-dichlorophenol | 2,5-dichlorophenol | bisphenol A | butylparaben | methylparaben | oxybenzone | propylparaben | Triclosan Details
34. Frederiksen H, et al. (2014). Copenhagen Mother-Child Cohort | Copenhagen Puberty Study | Odense Child Cohort Our study shows that nearly all Danes were exposed to the six most common phthalates, three phenols, and at least two of the parabens; the exposure to other non-persistent chemicals was also widespread. Parabens | Phenols | Phthalic Acids Children | Pregnant females | Study subjects Denmark urine 2,4,5-trichlorophenol | 2,4-dichlorophenol | 2,5-dichlorophenol | 2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate | 2-phenylphenol | 4-phenylphenol | benzylparaben | bisphenol A | butylparaben | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | methylparaben | mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate | mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate | mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate | mono-benzyl phthalate | monobutyl phthalate | mono(carboxy-isooctyl)phthalate | monoethyl phthalate | mono-isobutyl phthalate | monoisononylphthalate | mono-n-octyl phthalate | oxybenzone | propylparaben | triclocarban | Triclosan Details
35. Tefre de Renzy-Martin K, et al. (2014). Odense Child Cohort We found detectable levels of phthalate metabolites, parabens, and phenols in almost all pregnant women, suggesting combined multiple exposures; our results raise concern, as current toxicological risk assessments in humans do not take into account simultaneous exposure, and the true cumulative risk for the fetus may be underestimated Parabens | Phenols | Phthalic Acids Pregnant females Denmark urine 2,4,5-trichlorophenol | 2,4-dichlorophenol | 2,5-dichlorophenol | 2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate | 2-phenylphenol | 4-phenylphenol | benzylparaben | bisphenol A | butylparaben | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | methylparaben | mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate | mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate | mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate | mono-benzyl phthalate | monobutyl phthalate | mono(carboxy-isooctyl)phthalate | monoethyl phthalate | mono-isobutyl phthalate | monoisononylphthalate | mono-n-octyl phthalate | oxybenzone | propylparaben | triclocarban | Triclosan Details
36. Mortensen ME, et al. (2014). National Children's Study (NCS) | National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) We report urinary concentrations of environmental phenols in pregnant women in a pilot study of the National Children's Study, and (comparing these results to those from NHANES studies) find that race/ethnicity and geographic location determined urinary concentrations of most phenols, except bisphenol A. race Phenols Pregnant females | Study subjects United States urine 2,4-dichlorophenol | 2,5-dichlorophenol | bisphenol A | methylparaben | oxybenzone | propylparaben | Triclosan Details
37. Wolff MS, et al. (2015). Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Project (BCERP) We estimated relative risk of age at puberty associated with phenol exposures among girls when they were 6-8 years old and followed annually for 7 years; girls experienced breast development 5-6 months later (for enterolactone and benzophenone-3) or 4-9 months sooner (for triclosan and 2,5-dichlorophenol). sex Phenols Children United States urine 2,3-bis(3'-hydroxybenzyl)butyrolactone | 2,5-dichlorophenol | bisphenol A | daidzein | Genistein | oxybenzone | Parabens | Triclosan Details thelarche
38. Casas L, et al. (2011). INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) Project Phthalate and phenol exposures are prevalent in a group of pregnant women and young children, two susceptible populations, and these exposures might be positively related to social class. socioeconomic status Phenols | Phthalic Acids Children | Pregnant females Spain urine 2,4-dichlorophenol | 2,5-dichlorophenol | 2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate | bisphenol A | butylparaben | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | methylparaben | mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate | mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate | mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate | mono-benzyl phthalate | monobutyl phthalate | mono(carboxy-isooctyl)phthalate | monoethyl phthalate | mono-isobutyl phthalate | oxybenzone | propylparaben | Triclosan Details
39. Philippat C, et al. (2012). EDEN | PELAGIE We observed evidence of an inverse association of 2,5-dichlorophenol and a positive association of benzophenone-3 with male birth weight. sex Phenols | Phthalic Acids Pregnant females France urine 2,4-dichlorophenol | 2,5-dichlorophenol | 2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate | bisphenol A | butylparaben | ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate | methylparaben | mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate | mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate | mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate | mono-benzyl phthalate | monobutyl phthalate | mono(carboxy-isooctyl)phthalate | monoethyl phthalate | mono-isobutyl phthalate | oxybenzone | propylparaben | Triclosan Details Birth Weight | Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects | head development
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