These are exposure studies associated with the disease and all of its children.
|Reference||Associated Study Title||Author's Summary||Study Factors||Stressor||Receptors||Country||Medium||Exposure Marker||Measurements||Outcome|
|1.||Wasserman GA, et al. (2007).||Exposure to arsenic from drinking water was associated with reduced intellectual function before and after adjusting for water manganese for blood lead levels, and for sociodemographic features.||diet||Arsenic | Lead | Manganese||Children||Bangladesh||blood | urine | water, drinking||Arsenic | Lead | Manganese||Details||Arsenic Poisoning | Learning Disorders|
|2.||Ciesielski T, et al. (2012).||National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)||These findings suggest that children who have higher urinary cadmium concentrations may have increased risk of both learning disability and special education. Importantly, we observed these associations at exposure levels that were previously considered to be without adverse effects, and these levels are common among U.S. children.||race | socioeconomic status||Cadmium||Children||United States||urine||Cadmium||Details||Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity | Learning Disorders|
|3.||Jedrychowski WA, et al. (2015).||To our knowledge, this is the first epidemiologic study showing that prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure measured by cord blood PAH-DNA adducts is associated with cognitive dysfunction (depressed verbal IQ index) assessed by the WISC-R test, which is the commonly used instrument for measuring intelligence of children.||Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons||Children||Poland||blood, cord||polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-DNA adduct||Details||Cognition Disorders | Learning Disorders | cognition|
|4.||Cieslak K, et al. (2014).||This study demonstrates a relationship of low vitamin D levels with increased cellular aging in females, and also demonstrates potential sex-specific profiles among schizophrenia cases with hypovitaminosis.||sex||Vitamin D||Subjects with disease:Schizophrenia | Subjects with disease:Vitamin D Deficiency||United States||serum||Vitamin D||Details||Anhedonia | Developmental Disabilities | Psychotic Disorders | Schizophrenia | Social Communication Disorder | aggressive behavior | cell aging | regulation of telomere maintenance via telomere lengthening | social behavior|