These are exposure studies associated with the disease and all of its children.
|Reference||Associated Study Title||Author's Summary||Study Factors||Stressor||Receptors||Country||Medium||Exposure Marker||Measurements||Outcome|
|1.||Liu CB, et al. (2016).||Our findings suggest some positive associations between maternal exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM10) during the first two months of pregnancy and fetal cardiovascular malformations.||Air Pollutants | Particulate Matter||Infants or newborns | Pregnant females||China||air, ambient||Particulate Matter||Details||Cardiovascular Abnormalities | Ductus Arteriosus, Patent | Heart Septal Defects, Atrial | Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular | Tetralogy of Fallot|
|2.||Wright JM, et al. (2017).||This is the first epidemiological study of birth defects and disinfection by-products (DBPs) to examine several individual cardiovascular defects, different exposure surrogate mixtures (sum of chloroform, bromoform, bromodichloromethane, and dibromochloromethane (THM4), brominated trihalomethanes, sum of monochloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, monobromoacetic acid, and dibromoacetic acid (HAA5), sum of THM4 and HAA5, and various individual DBP species.||sex||bromoacetate | bromodichloromethane | bromoform | chloroacetic acid | chlorodibromomethane | Chloroform | dibromoacetic acid | Dichloroacetic Acid | Trichloroacetic Acid||Fetuses | Pregnant females||United States||water, drinking||Acetates | bromoacetate | bromodichloromethane | bromoform | chloroacetic acid | chlorodibromomethane | Chloroform | dibromoacetic acid | Dichloroacetic Acid | Trichloroacetic Acid | Trihalomethanes||Details||Cardiovascular Abnormalities | Heart Septal Defects, Atrial | Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular | Pulmonary Valve Stenosis | Tetralogy of Fallot | Transposition of Great Vessels|
|3.||Gilboa SM, et al. (2005).||A population-based case-control study investigated the association between maternal exposure to air pollutants, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter <10 microns in aerodynamic diameter during weeks 3-8 of pregnancy and the risk of selected cardiac birth defects and oral clefts in livebirths and fetal deaths between 1997 and 2000 in seven Texas counties.||sex||Carbon Monoxide | Nitrogen Dioxide | Ozone | Particulate Matter | Sulfur Dioxide||Children||United States||Details||Cleft Lip | Cleft Palate | Conotruncal cardiac defects | Endocardial Cushion Defects | Heart Septal Defects, Atrial | Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular | Tetralogy of Fallot|
|4.||Hwang BF, et al. (2008).||The present study suggests that prenatal exposure to disinfection by-products increases the risk of ventricular septal defects, cleft palate, and anencephalus.||Trihalomethanes||Infants or newborns||Taiwan, Province of China||Trihalomethanes||Details||Anencephaly | Cleft Palate | Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular|