These are exposure studies associated with the disease and all of its children.
|Reference||Associated Study Title||Author's Summary||Study Factors||Stressor||Receptors||Country||Medium||Exposure Marker||Measurements||Outcome|
|1.||Sanders AP, et al. (2014).||In the present study we examined private well water levels of arsenic, cadmium, manganese, and lead across North Carolina, and used a semi-ecologic study design to estimate the association between metal levels and specific birth defect phenotypes.||Arsenic | Cadmium | Lead | Manganese||Infants or newborns||United States||Arsenic | Cadmium | Lead | Manganese||Details||Cleft Lip | Congenital Microtia | Conotruncal cardiac defects | Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome | Pyloric Stenosis|
|2.||Arora M, et al. (2009).||National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)||In the present study, we found that environmental Cadmium (Cd) exposure, as measured by creatinine-corrected urine Cd concentration, was associated with increased odds of prevalent periodontal disease in U.S. adults.||tobacco||Cadmium||Controls for disease:Diabetes Mellitus | Subjects with disease:Diabetes Mellitus | Controls for disease:Periodontal Diseases | Subjects with disease:Periodontal Diseases | Controls for disease:Renal Insufficiency | Subjects with disease:Renal Insufficiency | Study subjects||United States||urine||Cadmium||Details||Periodontal Diseases|
|3.||Gilboa SM, et al. (2005).||A population-based case-control study investigated the association between maternal exposure to air pollutants, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter <10 microns in aerodynamic diameter during weeks 3-8 of pregnancy and the risk of selected cardiac birth defects and oral clefts in livebirths and fetal deaths between 1997 and 2000 in seven Texas counties.||sex||Carbon Monoxide | Nitrogen Dioxide | Ozone | Particulate Matter | Sulfur Dioxide||Children||United States||Details||Cleft Lip | Cleft Palate | Conotruncal cardiac defects | Endocardial Cushion Defects | Heart Septal Defects, Atrial | Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular | Tetralogy of Fallot|
|4.||Arora M, et al. (2009).||Normative Aging Study (NAS)||Long-term cumulative lead exposure is associated with increased odds of tooth loss.||Lead||Study subjects||United States||blood | patella | tibia||Lead||Details||Tooth Loss|
|5.||Hwang BF, et al. (2008).||The present study suggests that prenatal exposure to disinfection by-products increases the risk of ventricular septal defects, cleft palate, and anencephalus.||Trihalomethanes||Infants or newborns||Taiwan, Province of China||Trihalomethanes||Details||Anencephaly | Cleft Palate | Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular|