These are exposure studies associated with the disease and all of its children.
|Reference||Associated Study Title||Author's Summary||Study Factors||Stressor||Receptors||Country||Medium||Exposure Marker||Measurements||Outcome|
|1.||Main KM, et al. (2007).||Two different proxies were used for prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ethers exposure, and levels in breast milk, but not in placenta, showed an association with congenital cryptorchidism.||2,2',3,4,4',5',6-
||Infants or newborns | Mothers||Denmark|Finland||milk, human | placenta||2,2',3,4,4',5',6-
|2.||Fénichel P, et al. (2012).||The presence of unconjugated bisphenol A in all cord blood samples suggests placental transfer and fetal exposure.||Androstenedione | bisphenol A | Estradiol | Estriol | Estrone | Testosterone||Controls for disease:Cryptorchidism | Subjects with disease:Cryptorchidism | Infants or newborns||France||blood, cord||Androstenedione | bisphenol A | Estradiol | Estriol | Estrone | Testosterone||Details|
|3.||Pierik FH, et al. (2007).||Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP)||These results provide little support for an association of cryptorchidism with exposure to low levels of heptachlor epoxide or hexachlorobenzene. For beta-hexachlorocyclohexane the findings were somewhat suggestive of an association but were inconclusive.||beta-hexachlorocyclohexane | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | Heptachlor Epoxide | Hexachlorobenzene||Pregnant females||United States||serum||beta-hexachlorocyclohexane | Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene | Heptachlor Epoxide | Hexachlorobenzene||Details||Cryptorchidism|
|4.||Toft G, et al. (2016).||Environmental perfluorooctane sulfonate exposure was associated with steroid hormone and INSL3 concentrations in amniotic fluid, but was not associated with cryptorchidism or hypospadias in our study population.||perfluorooctane sulfonic acid||Pregnant females||Denmark||amniotic fluid||17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone | Androstenedione | Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate | Hydrocortisone | INSL3 | Progesterone | Testosterone||Details||Cryptorchidism | Hypospadias | regulation of gene expression | regulation of testosterone biosynthetic process|
|5.||Carmichael SL, et al. (2016).||This study indicates that babies with genetic variants and maternal pesticide exposures who were previously identified as associated with increased risk of hypospadias were at two- to fourfold increased risk of hypospadias.||genetics||Pesticides||Subjects with gene influence:DGKK | Controls for disease:Hypospadias | Subjects with disease:Hypospadias | Infants or newborns||United States||Details||Hypospadias|