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Reference Motor hyperactivity caused by a deficit in dopaminergic neurons and the effects of endocrine disruptors: a study inspired by the physiological roles of PACAP in the brain.

Authors Masuo Y, Morita M, Oka S, Ishido M.
Institution Human Stress Signal Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba Central 6, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8566, Japan.
Citation Regul Pept. 2004 Dec 15;123(1-3):225-34.
DOI ID 10.1016/j.regpep.2004.05.010
PubMed® ID 15518916
Review Status Is curated Curated.
Abstract Recent studies have revealed that the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) might act as a psychostimulant. Here we investigated the mechanisms underlying motor hyperactivity in patients with pervasive developmental disorders, such as autism, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We studied the effects of intracisternal administration of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or endocrine disruptors (EDs) on spontaneous motor activity (SMA) and multiple gene expression in neonatal rats. Treatment with 6-OHDA caused significant hyperactivity during the dark phase in rats aged 4-5 weeks. Motor hyperactivities also were observed after treatment with endocrine disruptors, such as bisphenol A, nonylphenol, diethylhexyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate, during both dark and light phases. Gene-expression profiles produced using cDNA macroarrays of 8-week-old rats with 6-OHDA lesions revealed the altered expression of several classes of gene, including the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor 1, glutamate/aspartate transporter, gamma-aminobutyric-acid transporter, dopamine transporter 1, D4 receptor, and peptidergic elements such as the galanin receptor, arginine vasopressin receptor, neuropeptide Y and tachykinin 2. The changes in gene expression caused by treatment with endocrine disruptors differed from those induced by 6-OHDA. These results suggest that the mechanisms underlying the induction of motor hyperactivity and/or compensatory changes in young adult rats might differ between 6-OHDA and endocrine disruptors.