Help: Phenotypes

Overview

CTD manually curates chemical–induced modulations of molecular, cellular, and physiological phenotypes from the scientific literature. We distinguish between phenotypes and Diseases, wherein a phenotype refers to a non–disease–term biological event: e.g., decreased cell cycle arrest (phenotype) vs. liver cancer (disease), increased fat cell proliferation (phenotype) vs. morbid obesity (disease), and decreased spermatocyte division (phenotype) vs. male infertility (disease).

All CTD chemical–phenotype interactions are notated in a structured format using controlled terms for Chemicals, Genes, Gene Ontology (GO) as a phenotype vocabulary, Organisms, anatomical descriptors from Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), and the Reference.

Chemical, Gene, and GO terms in CTD that have associated phenotype data are flagged with a Phenotype icon.

Basics

For each curated Phenotype–based interaction, the following information is displayed:
  1. Chemical
  2. Phenotype
  3. Co–Mentioned Terms
  4. Interaction
  5. Organisms
  6. Anatomy
  7. Inference Network
  8. References
Sort these data differently by clicking a column heading.

Save these data into a comma-separated values (CSV), Excel, XML, or tab-separated values (TSV) file by clicking a Download link at the bottom of the table.

Hierarchies

CTD uses the Gene Ontology as a source of phenotype terms. The Gene Ontology vocabularies are structured hierarchically as directed acyclic graphs. A child (more specialized) GO term can have multiple parents (less specialized terms). Each path from the root of the hierarchy to the term is presented separately, with both the ancestor path and descendant terms shown. Nodes are indented to indicate their relative level in the hierarchy. A node marked by the + symbol has descendants that are not shown on the current page.

Click a term in an ancestor path to move up the hierarchy. Click a descendant term to move down.

A child term can have one of several different relationships to its parent(s), one type per parent. Icons represent the types of relationship types.

Sorting

Sort these data differently by clicking a column heading.

Download

Save these data into a comma-separated values (CSV), Excel, XML, or tab-separated values (TSV) file by clicking a Download link at the bottom of the table.